However, some of the colonies, like Maryland and Massachusetts, were founded because of persecution due to their beliefs. English Catholics led by Lord Baltimore were forced to leave the mainland because of persecution from the Anglicans and Protestants, subsequently founding Maryland in 1632. Maryland was classified as the first proprietary colony as Lord Baltimore governed his colony and enabled Catholics to practice their belief. Puritans or the Separatists were also forced to escape persecution from the mainland, traversing to the New World aboard the Mayflower. The group managed to settle in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620 with the aid of Squanto, a Native American who lives near the area.
Another group of Puritans led by John Winthrop also sailed to Americas due to persecution in 1630. The Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which grew quickly and yet restrictively as they did not agree with heretics who did not believe in their religion. Since religion played a key factor in many colonies development and political stance, many dissenters grew in the new colonies. Two of the most prominent dissenters were Roger Williams who founded Providence, and Anne Hutchinson, who founded Portsmouth. Both Williams and Hutchinson were strict Separatists and Puritan, considered heretics as they took their religious belief to the next level .
Like with the colonies built before the Restoration Period, colonies built in the period were mostly proprietary to ensure that they would achieve the goal of expanding the English territory within the New World. Charles II saw keen interest in the large gaps of land found in-between Massachusetts, Virginia, and Florida. Under the period, six colonies were created with proprietors connected to Charles II: Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, East and West Jersey and Georgia, which was founded after the Restoration period. Proprietors handling these colonies were given free reign over their territories, as long as they enact laws which are beneficial for the English government similar to the old colony proprietors. Proprietors were also given their position by Charles II because of the debt Charles II had to their families. William Penn, for example, was given the power over Pennsylvania despite his affiliation with the Quakers. Quakers opposed the English settlement in America, as well as the religious toleration of the government. As means of payment, Charles II was given the land of New York and Maryland to Penn. Penn was also able to buy three counties in 1682 which became Delaware.
Proprietors in the Restoration colonies tried to establish their control over the greater population by attracting settlers from other colonies since importing settlers from the mainland would be extremely expensive. Like the old colonies offering settlers land to move to the colonies, Restoration colonies found it to be easier to offer land to settlers as they attach liberty guarantees to ensure they would be secured with livelihood by the time they move to America. Setters are given the freedom to practice their religion if they were Christians, for others, they were offered means of toleration without eviction. This is different with the colonies back before the Restoration as colony administrators or proprietors evicted out fellow followers in the reason they were heretics. New Englanders were most prized out of the colonies as they were able to develop the colonies they belong into established colonies in America. Settlers who would be inexpensive to import to the New World were servants sent off to the West Indies to complete their contracts. If there were settlers wishing to move to America, most of them would opt to settle in South Carolina. Virginia and New England retained their exclusive requirements for settlers, especially checking their religious background. Nevertheless, the Restoration colonies attracted various religious and ethnic groups. Since there was diversity in both political and religious beliefs, the Restoration colonies grew differently from each other; eventually leading to strife between the various religious and ethnic groups in the colonies. Slaves rebelled against the colony due to the severe treatment to them; colonists rebelled against their leaders, while some separated themselves from the main colony. However, like the old territories, the Restoration period also enabled the English to have a grip hold over America’s resources until the Revolution began.
In terms of the government, both the colonies in before the Restoration Period and after, English colonies were aware of their own sense of government, making the start of the political development in the region. Self-government can be connected into two factors: first is the fact that English colonies could be considered private corporate enterprises or proprietary ventures. Being a proprietary venture enabled these English colonies to gain a sense of authority, and it took a while before the English government imposed control on them. The second factor deals with the English colony leader’s familiarity with the government style from the mainland. The ideas and traditions the leaders learnt from the mainland were brought to the colonies, allowing them to transform the government in their choosing. However, many noted that the constitutional control causes problems for the colonies, calling for a representative government. The representative government transformed into three types: royal colonies led by a governor by the king, proprietary colonies led by proprietors, and finally corporate colonies led by their own leaders.
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Murrin, John, et al. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. Boston: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Schultz, Kevin. America Unbound: A U. S. History Primer. Boston: Wadsworth, 2009. Print.