Anthropology: thanatology of death essay sample

Agonal Phase- agon means struggle, refers to s gasp and muscle spasm during the first moments in which regular heartbeat disintegrates. Clinical Death- a short interval follows in which heartbeat circulation, breathing, & brain functioning stop, but resuscitation is still possible. Morality- the individual passes into permanent death within a few hours the newly lifeless being appears shrunken, not at all like the person he or she was when alive. Brain Death- irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem is used in mist industrialized nations. Persistent vegetative state- in which the cerebral cortex no longer registered electrical activity but the brain stem remained active. Permanence- once a living thing dies it cannot be brought back to life. Inevitability- all living things die eventually.

Cessation- all living functions, including thought, feeling, movement, and bodily processes cease at death. Applicability- death applies only to living things
Causation- death is caused by a breakdown of bodily functioning. Death anxiety- fear and apprehension of death
Kubler-Ross’s Theory:

* Denial-upon learning of the illness, person denies the seriousness to escape from prospect of death * Anger- recognition that time is short & promotes anger at having to die w/out accomplishing everything * Bargaining- realizing the inevitability of death ill person beings to bargain for extra time, strike deal * Depression- when denial, anger,& bargaining fail to postpone the illness person becomes depressed about losing life * Acceptance- most people who reach acceptance are at a state of peace & quite about upcoming death Appropriate Death- is one that makes sense In terms of the individual’s patterns of living and values and at the same time preserves or restores significant relationships and is free of suffering as possible. Advanced medical directive- a written statement of desired medical treatment should they become incurably ill. The US recognizes 2 types of advanced directives a living will and a durable power of attorney for health care. Living will- people specify the treatments they do or do not want in case of a terminal illness, coma, or near death situation. Durable Power of Attorney- authorizes appointed person to make healthcare decisions on one behalf. Bereavement- is the experience of losing a loved one by death. Greif- intense physical and psychological distress.

Mourning- is the culturally specified expression of the bereaved persons thoughts & feelings. Avoidance- the survivor experiences shock followed by disbelief which may last from hours to weeks a numb feeling of emotional anesthesia while the person begins the first task of grieving becoming painfully aware of the loss. Confrontation- as the mourner confronts the reality if the death the grief is most intense. Restoration- adjusting to the loss is more than internal, emotional task. Bereaved must also deal with secondary stressors such as loneliness. Dual process model of coping with loss- effective coping requires people to oscillate between dealing with the emotional consequences of loss and attending to the life changes. oss and attending to the life changes. Anticipatory Grieving- acknowledging that the loss is inevitable and preparing emotionally for it. Ego differentiation- for those who invested heavily in their careers finding self worth Body transcendence- surmounting physical limitations by emphasizing the compensating rewards of cognitive emotional and social powers.

Ego transcendence- as contemporaries die facing the reality of death. Affect optimization- the ability to maximize optimistic emotion and dampen negative emotion. Reminiscence- telling old stories about people and events from the past & reporting associated feelings & thoughts. Dependency Support script- dependant behaviors are attended to immediately Independence ignores script- independent behaviors are mostly ignored. Disengagement theory- mutual withdrawal between elders & society takes place in anticipation of death. Activity theory- states that social barriers to engagement not the desires of elders cause declining rates of interaction. Continuity theory- does not view elder’s efforts to remain active in terms of simple replacement of lost social roles with new ones. Socioemotional selectivity theory- a final perspective addresses how people social networks sustain continuity while also narrowing as they age.