Contribution of Women to the Development of Home Economics in Education They all campaigned for expanded educational opportunities for women. Sarah Hale campaigned continually for women to have opportunities to enroll for higher education. She further fought for household science to be incorporated into the higher education curriculum (Gunn 4). Similarly, Catherine Beecher campaigned for the inclusion of domestic science into the higher education curriculum. She distinctly pushed for the subject to be an exclusive branch of school education. Sarah Hale is attributed for increasingly pushing for women empowerment through education. Mary E. Cripps helped in developing the home economy discipline in women’s education. She helped develop the sewing department and enlarge women’s education by including other subjects and areas like cooking lectures. In addition, Cripps helped in establishing the chemistry and kitchen laboratory in the school. She contributed immensely in establishing the cooking curriculum in the department through determining the contents and areas the students were to be taught. She helped in fighting for women to have a place in higher education within the United States through her involvement in developing and equipping the kitchen laboratory and cooking lectures in Kansas City (Gunn 12). She was a critical figure in the development of domestic education for women in the United States (Gunn 14). She helped in forming the first women’s organization in support of household economy of which she provided clear leadership. She was a legendary pioneer in domestic economy and women’s education in higher learning institutions in the country. Nellie Sawyer Kedzie contributed significantly by enhancing the department of home economics in higher learning. She helped Kansas State develop the largest and strongest academic program on domestic economy in America. Other notable names that helped in developing and supporting the home economics department in the country include Dalinda Mason and Abbie Marlatt. In common, Cripps and Hattie Cheseldine provided a model for other women to emulate in fighting for women opportunities in higher education (Gunn 17). Like the other early pioneers in home economics, Margaret Comstock Snell was involved in the development of the discipline. She helped in increasing the opportunities for women empowerment and education through the school they opened and taught together with her sisters. She helped in developing the household economy and hygiene through establishing a department at a university (Clark & Munford 42). Snell helped in formulating the role of the home economy department as well as the curriculum for teaching the students. She acted as a role model for the women in her class in terms of appreciating good art and literature. She also instilled in her students the importance of human relations (Clark & Munford 43). Margaret Snell and Ellen H. Richards were almost age mates because they were born in 1843 and 1842 respectively. These women had an early desire to acquire education and subsequently proceeded to be teachers in their early lives. During their early age, both women studied scientific studies largely dominated by men. They were committed with a clear vision of improving the society through improving the home. They agitated for women to be educated to enhance the need to develop home life. They were inspiring and acted as role models in developing and pioneering home economy in higher education in the country (Clark & Munford 45). Both Ellen and Snell had backgrounds in education and this enhanced their ambitions in improving home making and life through educating and empowering women. They engaged with likeminded followers in their quest to develop the discipline. The education background together with passion for home making made both women help in developing the home economics curriculum by carrying out experiments, including house designs, domestic sanitation and food preparations (Clark & Munford 45-46). The background they had in education and teaching made it easier for them to teach and develop curriculum to help establish the home economics department. Mary Beaumont Welch was involved in establishing a college in her early days to help in providing revolutionary ideas in education. She also helped in expanding the discipline of home economics and enhanced women’s education in higher learning. She did this through writing various articles in magazines and journals, a venture that helped to publicize women’s education and home making. Her background in schooling, lectures and writing contributed largely in helping her establish and develop a curriculum in home economics (Eppright 13). She expanded the discipline of home economics to include care and management of children besides caring for the sick and budgeting for homes. Like all the early pioneers, she ensured that home making and home economics was not confined to the boundaries of classrooms but reached the outside world in hotels and restaurants (Eppright 15). Louisa C. Allen Gregory was instrumental during the pioneering days in developing the curriculum of domestic science in institutions of higher learning. She gave the desired leadership to the school and ensured that the roles were carried out. Prior to assuming her role as the head of the department, the department existed only by name, but the actions and the responsibilities were never accomplished (Arnold & Arnold 64). The background in domestic science and physical education was instrumental in helping her come up with a curriculum in home economics. The initial teaching and instruction roles by Allen included lectures urging the scientific study of household problems (Arnold & Arnold 71). Her earlier education and life encompassed fighting for women’s opportunities in education and the home making. Allen spent most of her time attending lectures, institutes and schools, which helped her incorporate these aspects into the home economics curriculum (Arnold & Arnold 80). Her science and physiology background was biased toward domestic economy. Conclusion The development of home science and economics discipline in higher education was majorly contributed to by women who had the will and desire for women to have opportunities in education. These opportunities would enable educated women to help in home making. The notable contributions common to most of these pioneers include inspiring other women and acting as role models in the field, promoting the women’s education, teaching home economics and related subjects, designing and developing curriculum to help in establishing the subject in education. Works Cited ” Louisa C. Allen Gregory.” Arnold, Lois and Lois Barber Arnold. Four Lives in Science: Women’s Education in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Schocken Books, 1984. 63-90. Clark, Ava Milam and Kenneth J. Munford. ” Adventures of a Home Economist.” Oregon: Oregon State University Press, 1969. 37-49. ” Mary Beaumont Welch: A Biographical Sketch.” Eppright, Ercel Sherman. A century of home economics at Iowa State University: A proud past, a lively present, a future promise. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1971. 10-41. Gunn, Virginia Railsback. ” Industrialists Not Butterflies.” Kansas History 18. 1 (1995): 2-17.