His concept embraces the view that an individual inherits a particular type of nervous system that predisposes him or her to develop in a particular way. According to Eysenck there are three basicpersonalitydimensions: extraverted (sociable) – introverted (quiet), neurotic (emotional instability), and psychotic (obsessed, hysteric, schizophrenic). Junk identified two types of attitudes: extroversion and introversion. An extravert is a person who is outward-looking, responds better to facts, and is more scientific than philosophical.
Introvert is a person who is subjective, philosophical, a day-dreamer, an artistic type. Jung recognized that there are more than two types of people in the world. So he observed the relationship between a person’s consciousness and experience – that is hoe we perceive and make sense of the world. Jung identifies the four basic functions: sensation, thinking, feeling and intuition. Sensing is processing information through the senses. Thinking is the understanding what a ‘think’ is and puts a name to what is sensed.
Feeling is reacting to things emotionally and defining them as acceptable or unacceptable. Intuition is having hunches about past or future events in the absence of real information. General capacity- According to Wechsler intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with hisenvironment. Factorial’ view- According the Spearman’s view everyone has a g factor or general intelligence in different amount. It depends on the g factor to tell if a person is stupid or very smart.
We can understand the quantity of the g factor from intelligence tests. Spearman also talked about s factors which are related to some of people’s abilities. Women and men differ on the constructs and traits being used. Men and Woman differ in the kind of characters they dream about, the way they approach achievement tasks, how they express emotions, what they look for in a romantic partner, and how much they self-disclose. Researches suggest that females and males do not differ in their general abilities to memorise and recall information.
Motivation- People can be motivated in a different ways, too. Motives consist of inner states that energise, active, and direct the behaviour of the person as she or he strives to attain a goal or acquire an incentive. Motivators can be power, recognition, respect, money, achievement, feedback, status and many others. Ed Locke’s goal-setting theory states that a goal is what an individual is trying to accomplish, it is the object or aim of an action. Source: Adapted from Work Behaviour by F. Landy. Copyright 1989, 1985, 1980, 1976 Brooks/Cole.
Publishing Company, a division of International Thomson Publishing Inc. Important conclusions from this theory are that difficultgoalslead to higher performance than easy goals, specific goals lead to higher performance than general ‘do your best’ goals, knowledge of results is essential if the full performance benefits of setting difficult and specific goals are to be achieved, beneficial effects of goal setting depend partly on a person’s goal commitment if she or he is determined to try to achieve.