The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. Nearly four decades of research have contributed to our current portrait of effective curriculum enhancement. It must be remembered that the research area on this field is still continuing and new results and understanding will continue and new results and understanding will continue to emerge for many years. In a very general sense, the norms and satisfied with their jobs are exhibition at high levels, high morale about their learning performance, and more academic self-confidence. Professors who express a great deal of pride and satisfaction in their work appear to be most effective in classrooms.
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Student learning may be determined by their academic performances that focus on their personality and behavior. According to their grades we can determine the academic performance of a student. It says that if the student earns high grades it means that they learn a lot, while low grades indicates lesser learning. An academic institution provides curricular offerings that would meet the students’ needs and enhance their interest to fulfill academic tasks and responsibilities. Excellent academic performance is a mission not only of the institution but also of the students who earnestly pursuer their chosen degree. Many opportunities and varied undertakings are set and realized for the student’s benefits. They have consistently afforded opportunities to the students while in their stage of learning and acquiring knowledge and skills. Academic performance focuses and concentrates on having the right mind-set for raising your academic performance so you can learn more effectively.
It is the outcome of education the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. No single factor can definitely points out as predicting grades. It has been an inter play of so many factors – gender, age, parent’s educational attainment, status, number of siblings, birth order. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance. There is 3rd yr. HRM students who may be smart but perform poorly despite the good learning in their schools. Among the factors that are liable for the student’s academic performance and low motivation the home environment is hardly mentioned. This study tries to find out whether the differences in academic performance and on the job training performance of selected students from 3rd and 4th yr. HRM students at Philippine Christian University. The researchers would like to analyze the possible relationship of academic performance of the selected 3rd yr. HRM students of Philippine Christian University Manila Campus SY. 2012 – 2013 Background of the Study
Academic Performance refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers and it is also the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate your knowledge verbally or down on paper. Therefore, Academic Performance has been linked to differences in intelligence and personality. Students with higher mental and those who are higher in conscientiousness tend to achieve highly in academic settings.
A recent meta-analysis suggested that mental curiosity has an important influence on academic performance in addition to intelligence and conscientiousness. In intelligence it is defined in many different ways including, but not limited to, understanding self-awareness, communication, reasoning, learning, knowledge and problem solving. While Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. Therefore, studies of academic performance may be able to explain to some extent what factors increase the likelihood of high academic performance, and to possibly make recommendation to facilitate the removal of social, psychological and economic barriers to full participation in the educational system by all those who have the ability and desire to do so.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the Academic Performance of 3rd yr. BSHRM students of Philippine Christian University – Manila School Year 2012-2013 Specifically if aims to answer the following question:
1. What is the profile of the students in terms of:
2. 1 Gender
2. 2 Family Income
2. 3 Age
2. What are the factors affecting the academic performance of students in terms of: 3. 4 Facilities
3. 5 Faculty
3. What is the academic average of the students in the following major subjects? 4. 6 Housekeeping
4. 7 Front Office Management
4. 8 Meal Management
4. 9 Bakery Science
4. 10 Basic Culinary Arts
4. 11 Bar Management
4. 12 Catering and Banquet Management
There is significant relationship between the respondent profile and academic performance of HRM students. Conceptual Framework
The basis for researching this topic about Academic Performance of Hotel Restaurant Management students of Philippine Christian University is to know if how the students improve their skills the time that their at school and how the performance of students when they on their On the Job Training. It will be evaluate the relation between the Academic Performance and the On the Job Training. The Figure below shows the Academic Performance of Hotel Restaurant Management students of Philippine Christian University what is the dependent variables and independent variables of a student. The Dependent and Independent Variables has a different to each other. Its shows how a person can evaluate when come to their academic performance and on their On the Job Training.
Independent VariablesFigure 1Dependent Variables
Paradigm of the study shows the relationship of the Independent and Dependent
Scope and Limitations
This study focused on the academic and OJT performance of the 3rd yr. HRM students of the Philippine Christian University Taft Manila. The school measured the academic performance and On the Job Training of the students. The respondents will be 50% of total 3rd yr. BSHRM students of Philippine Christian University. The period will be covered by the study was SY. 2012 – 2013.
Definition of Terms
Academic Performance can be used as basis for how PCU HRM students applied their learning from school to their On the Job Training. Academic Performance is the outcome of education the extent to which a student. Age a period of human life, measured by years from birth.
Basic Culinary Arts the art of preparing and cooking foods. The word ‘ culinary’ is defined as something related to, or connected with, cooking. Front Office Management this course introduces the various principle, concepts, competencies, techniques and practices of front office operations. Housekeeping this course introduces the various principles, concepts, competencies, techniques and practices of institutional housekeeping operations. Intelligencedefined in many different ways including, but not limited to, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, reasoning, learning, having emotional knowledge, retaining, planning, and problem solving. Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something which can include facts, information, description or skills acquired through experience or education. Major Subjects is the academic discipline to which an student formally commits.
A student who successfully completes the courses prescribed in an academic major qualifies for an undergraduate degree. Meal Management this course deals with the technical aspects of the food service e operation. It entails the knowledge, competency and desirable attitude of service food and beverages with emphasis on the necessary art, techniques and work habits of table service On the Job Training (OJT) It is also called practicum or “ Hands-on-Training” which HRM students underwent in selected/designated hotels and restaurant where they actually had their training for further acquisition of knowledge where they actually had their training for further acquisition of knowledge and skills in HRM. It is a requirement before the students’ graduation. Personality is the particular combination of emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral response patterns of an individual. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions. Student is a person who issued for anyone learning and who seek knowledge.
Significance of the Study
The Findings of this study will be beneficial to the following: School Administrators can be guided in the formulation of future of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning. Faculty will also be help in understanding better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter. Guidance and Counseling Centre it will also help by this study through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors on the factors affecting student’s academic performance. This increased the understanding of guidance counselors on how can they improve the performance of the students to improve their grades. Students will be given information on how study affects their academic performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study habits among their co- education students. Future Researchers they may able to use the result of the study for further research similar to what the study is.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
In this chapter shows the foreign and local literature and studies which are relevant to the present undertaking. Literature and studies cited enables the researcher to have a better understanding and a wider perspective of this research. Related Literature
HRM as one of very popular courses is pursued by many students who have the flair for culinary arts and restaurants management acumen. It has also attracted those who desire to go abroad and position themselves in the global tourism market through hotels and restaurant. (“ W. Gracy, 1992”) said that the future of the hotel and motel industry is faced with several problems such as rising energy costs, increasing difficulty of operating food and beverage operations, high construction cost in certain area and increase in labor costs without increase in productivity. Gaining insights on hospitality and restaurants and tourism industry would be helpful to managers, workers/employees and the trainees who desire to be good and productive in the accomplishing of the tasks.
These insights would also help the people concerned to be aware on the laws and ethics, involved in the promotion of hospitality and tourism industry which are inseparable from hotel and restaurant management as a course. (“ Atwell, 1996”) Mars, Bryant and Mitchell 1997 emphasized the need for specialist training people in the managerial work in the hospitality industry because it is concerned principally with hotel management roles. It has been noted that people who come to hotel management careers are those who come to the industry with formal hotel school training. Those who train for management within the industry after starting either in craft positions or being given a traineeship; and those who have an early career in another industry followed by late entry into the hotel industry. Age
A human life is often divided into various ages. Because biological changes are slow moving and vary from person to person, arbitrary dates are usually set to mark periods of human life. In the USA, adulthood legally begins at the age of eighteen or nineteen. Given the physical and cognitive declinesseen in ageing, a surprising finding is that emotional experience improves with age. (“ Wikipedia, 2012”) Gender
It is clearly seen that the children of today need quantity education so as far them to have strong determination and faith to fulfill their personal and social responsibilities effectively and efficiently. Feldman as cited by Subilaga (2004) found out that in matter of performance, male and female college students have no significant difference while Tiburcio(1999) found that sex was significantly related to the students writing skill performance training. It will also relate to the present study because sex is also one of the factors that will determine the on the job training performance of 3rdyr HRM students.
The child’s learning capacity is influenced by his parent’s family income according to Buensuceso (1994). In this study of school performancein NCEE, Ebalan (1986) reported that there is strong evidence that high scoring schools have a greater proportion of students with high family income than those low scoring schools. These findings tended to underscore the influence of socioeconomic status in student’s performance in school. Front Office
Hotels operate 24 hours a day 365 days a year. Excluding some seasonal resorts, most hotels operate continuously sleeping rooms, outlets/ ancillary venues, banquet services – everything must be available for the guest. That means the hotel personnel responsible for operating and maintaining those services must be staffed continuously as well being that the guest room is the primary justification for the hotels existence at all, nowhere is the need for continuous staffing more evident that the front desk. The front desk must operate, in some manner, 24 hours a day. Because the front desk is such a vital department within the rooms division, it requires strong oversight by managers. The front office manager or front desk manager in large and mega size hotels must be able to manage a staff of front desk agents and lead by example. The scope of responsibility of these managers depends in large part on size of the hotel, its location type and its product type. The specific duties vary widely based on these factors but the most universal functions are communication, staffing and operations administration (Ismail, 2005) Skills that Front Office needs in work:
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Active Listening – Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times. Service Orientation – Actively looking for ways to help people. Social Perceptiveness – Being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do. Speaking – Talking to others to convey information effectively. Coordination – Adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions. Critical Thinking – Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems. Judgment and Decision Making – Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. Active Learning – Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making. (“ A practical guide to front office skills and services in the hospitality industry 2008. O’Shannessy)
Housekeeping is the act of cleaning the rooms and furnishings of a home. It is one of the many chores included in the term housework. Housecleaning includes activities such as disposing of rubbish, cleaning dirty surfaces, dusting and vacuuming. It may also involve some outdoor chores, such as removing leaves from rain gutters, washing windows and sweeping doormats. The term is often used also figuratively in politics and business, for the removal of unwanted personnel, methods or policies in an effort at reform or improvement. (Wikipedia. com 09/21/12) Skills that Housekeeping needs in work:
Removal of Litter – Disposal of rubbish is an important aspect of house cleaning. Plastic bags are designed and manufactured specifically for the collection of litter. Many are sized to fit common waste baskets and trash cans. Paper bags are made to carry aluminum cans, glass jars and other things although most people use plastic bins glass since it could break and tear through the bag. Dusting -Over time dust accumulates on household surfaces. As well as making the surfaces dirty, when dust is disturbed it can become suspended in the air, causing sneezing and breathing trouble. It can also transfer from furniture to clothing, making it unclean. Various tools have been invented for dust removal; Feather and lamb’s wool dusters, cotton and polyester dust cloths, furniture spray and disposable paper “ dustclothes”, dust mops for smooth floors and vacuum cleaners. Vacuum cleaners often have a variety of tools to enable them to remove not just from carpets and rugs, but from hard surfaces and upholstery. Hotel Bed Making Procedures:
Hotel housekeepers make dozens of beds daily. They are required to complete this part of the job quickly and efficiently. Most housekeepers are expected to be able to make a bed in less than a minute, and change the sheets in two to three minutes. Good hotel bed-making procedures will result in a crisp, clean and well-made bed. (EHow. com`09/26/12) Instructions
*Determine if the bed needs to be made. In very rare situations, the guest will have already straightened the sheets and folded the comforter at the bottom of the bed. In this case, the pillows may be fluffed and the sheets smoothed out, but the blankets are otherwise left as the guest arranged them. If the sheets are dirty, they will need to be changed completely before the bed is made. Remove dirty sheets if necessary. *Toss the bottom sheet over the bed, if you are changing the sheets. This can be done by standing at the foot of the bed and holding on to the bottom edge of the sheet while throwing the rest of the sheet into the air above the bed. With practice, the sheet will fall smoothly onto the bed. *Smooth the bottom sheet and tuck under any loose corners. In hotel beds, the bottom sheet is not fitted like the sheets sold for home use. The bottom sheet is flat, the same as the top sheet.
This makes it easier to work with and, especially, to launder and fold. Tuck in the edges and corners of the bottom sheet. This is usually done with square corners. The sides are tucked under first. Then, the triangular corner of the sheet is pulled outward and tucked neatly along the edge of the mattress. *Spread the top sheet over the bottom one. Pull the top sheet up to the top of the mattress and smooth it out. Pull the blanket up as well, leaving it about two inches below the top of the sheet. Fold the top edge of the sheet over the blanket. *Fold the edges and corners of the top sheet and blanket under the mattress in the same way the bottom sheet was folded under. *Cover the bed with the comforter. Place the pillows beneath the top of the comforter, and smooth the comforter over top of them. Still working on top of the comforter, slide your hand beneath the pillows so that there is a crease in the comforter where the pillows are. In some hotels, the comforter may alternately be folded at the foot of the bed rather than pulled over the entire mattress.(ehow. com 09/26/12) Food and
A food and beverage forecast is not a quantitative report that attempts to predict the outcome of a series of events, with little or no effort made to control the results of those events. A food and beverage budget is a plan that calls for a series of actions to produce certain outcomes, with effective controls incorporated into these actions. These controls maximize the chances of achieving the desired income and expenses. The controller and management must choose the budgetary policies to follow and the standards to use. The manager must be able to account for the stock and sales. To do so, sales records must coincide with replacement requisition both to the guest rooms and from the storeroom. Other issues, that may be evaluated include adequate stock levels, prevention of spoilage and labor cost from restocking and stock rotation (Ojugo, 1999). Table Service – is a restaurant industry term that can mean either the presentation of food to patrons by waiters, or the place settings present on each table. Welcoming and seating the guest procedure
The host or hostess is responsible for greeting and welcoming guests. He or she will also take guests to a table to be seated. Instructions
*Be familiar with the set up of the dining room – Find out what tables are designed for 2, 3, or 4 people and which ones are reserved for those with reservation, This makes it easy to locate the appropriate table for arriving guests. *Stay at the outlet entrance -Approach the guest, look at each one, greet them with a smile and mention their name and position, This makes the guest more welcome and valued. *If there is no available table; fact fully inform the guest and advice them to wait at the lounge.
Graciously look at the host as you say “ Im sorry sir/ma’am but we are fully booked at the moment, do you mind waiting at the lounge and ill call you once a table would be available. “ Have a waiting guest to make them comfortable while waiting. *If the guest has a reservation, make sure his table is prepared in advance. Tell the host” We have a prepared a nice table for your party Mr/Mrs This way please”, Avoid asking “ do you have reservations?” This sounds offensive for many guests. *Lead the guest towards the table.-Walk a little ahead of them to thier table. Endorse them to captain or waiter and assist them in getting seated. Taking Order
One of the key determinants of a customer’s experience in a restaurant is the level of service offered by the waiting staff. If you are a waiter, your primary responsibility is to ensure that all your customers are happy and their needs are met. Instructions:
*Prepare your order pad. Some restaurants may have a pre-configured pad with a sequential order of seats for all the tables at your station. If not, ensure that you have your own method of order-taking such as a clockwise system or a coding system based on the number of guests that assures everyone receives the correct dish. *Greet the guests at the table with a smile as you make eye contact with each of them. State the specials of the day and make several recommendations. Ask if anyone has questions about an item on the menu. *Take the first order from the female guests, if applicable. If there are no women at the table, take the order based on your restaurant’s sequential system or from the male guest who seems most ready to order. If your customer is trying to decide among several menu items, provide assistance by explaining how each dish is prepared. *Repeat the order back to every guest to ensure it is accurate. If someone orders a dish that can be prepared several different ways — such as a steak — ask how the guest would like the item cooked. Repeating the order also allows you to ensure that you match each guest with the proper order. *Ask the diners if they would like to add anything to the order. Thank everyone, collect the menus and state that the meal will arrive shortly. (Food Service and Bartending 2003 by Amelia Samson-Roldan, Benito Tangonan-Edica)
Catering and Banquet
Catering is a perfect business for goal oriented people who find problem solving challenging and pleasurable. Caterers are often independent risk takers, but they must also be team players; they have to be excellent organizers, but not control freaks. Be prepared to wait for a late guest of honor or be delayed by traffic jams, power outrages or security checks. Under a wide range of conditions, caterers must be able to provide food that looks appetizing and tastes delicious and to make money doing it. Not one caterer calls it an easy job. Besides requiring a personal style, this business demands that you keep current with trends in food fashions and entertaining styles. The pros all read trade journals, magazines and the food section of major newspaper as well as many food industry newsletters. Caterer defined as ‘ one who supplies the viands at an entertainment usually considered to be more delicate or dainty than home production: a purchaser of provisions, purveyor, provider or preparer of eats or delicate. Catering is a versatile and fast growing segment of the flourishing food – service industry. Do not turn your nose up at any small assignment you think you can handle; think of it as being paid to build experience and a resume (Halvorsen, 2004). Kinds of catering services
Mobile Catering – A mobile caterer serves food directly from a vehicle, cart or truck which is designed for the purpose. Mobile catering is common at outdoor, workplaces, and downtown business districts. Event Catering – Catering services provided vary depending on the event and can include: cooking and delivering food to an outside location; cooking, delivering and serving food; and full-service. Boxed Lunch Catering – A box lunch is a lunch consisting of a sandwich, chips, fruit and a dessert. A box lunch is typically prepared by a caterer and dropped off to a location for a client’s dining needs. Box lunches are used primarily in the corporate arena for working lunches when they do not have time to take a break from their meeting yet still need to eat. A box lunch order is placed with a caterer a couple of days before the delivery date and is a cheaper way to go instead of a full sit-down lunch. (Wikipedia. com) Related Studies
This related study will be read and came from the thesis of The Adversity Quotient and Academic Performance among College Students at St. Joseph’s College, Quezon City. In psychological field, the psychologist will focus on different perspectives to study human behavior, such as the relationship between the EQ and the Academic Performance; or a person’s IQ and Academic Performance for this study, however the researcher will choose to focus on this new term the Adversity Quotient and the Academic Performance. According to Stoltz, one’s Adversity Quotient (AQ) consists of four dimensions: CORE. This acronym includes Control; Ownership and Origin; Reach and Endurance.
Control begins with the perception that something, anything can be done. It determines how and to what extent one takes action face of adverse events. Origin and Ownership refer to how one seeks to determine the cause of adverse events in one’s life and to what degree one is responsible for the outcome of that adversity. Reach refers to how one can limit an adverse event to being just problem at hand or how one lets the adverse event affect other areas in one’s life. Endurance refers to how one sees the adversity or its cause as being permanent or temporary. Those four elements combine to form a person’s AQ and his or her response to any given adversity.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the academic performance of the 50% of population of 3rd year BSHRM students in Philippine Christian University – Manila S. Y. 2011-2012 and how they will applied it on their On – Job – Training. Research Design
This study entitled “ The Academic Performance of 3rd yearBSHRM of Philippine Christian University – Manila Basis for OJT” is a qualitative research that attempts to accumulate existing information and data regarding the governing principles and systems of PCU education in the modern times. Trochim stated that “ a key reason for doing qualitative research is to investigate and become more experienced with a particular phenomenon of the researcher’s interest in order to deliver a detailed description. The research would utilize both descriptive and exploratory research methods in the conduct of the study. Descriptive research is a method used to obtain information relating to the current status of an issue or phenomenon to describe “ what exists” within the variables or conditions of the situation. The two most common types of descriptive research tools are surveys and observation (Key).
The researcher would make use of her observations from his/her experience On-Job-Training in order to come up with a personal description of the answer to the research problem. Exploratory research, on the other hand, is often utilized in order to yield information to explain problems which are not yet clearly defined or the real scope is still unclear. It allows the researcher to familiarize himself/herself with the concepts of the problem under study to facilitate development of insights and hypotheses. The present study is an exploratory attempt since it would try to gather information regarding the academic performance of 3rd year BSHRM student of PCU Manila. The researcher makes use of existing literature in order to verify her observations and come up with preliminary ideas regarding the research problem. Respondents of the Study
The respondents of this study are 3rd year BSHRM students of Philippine Christian University – Manila. They are the ones who are the knowledgeable enough to answer the problems posed in this study. They will be 25 – 30 students will be answer the questioner. I choose them because they are the students who will take up this on the job and will be evaluate how they perform in there On The Job Training and on their Academic Performance inside the campus.
The study conducted at Philippine Christian University this Research selected 3rd year BSHRM students we gathered to know their academic performance and how they apply or use it in On – Job – Training. -Learning is measured in the performance of the HRM student under in the conditions of practice. -HRM students’ performance helps them to apply what they learned inside the school on their OJT. Philippine Christian University History
The Philippine Christian University or simply referred to as PCU is a private university along Taft Avenue, Manila. It was founded in 1946 through the initiatives of the Laymen of the Evangelical Association of the Philippines. Originally named as Manila Union University, it was renamed as Philippine Christian College (PCC). In 1976, the PCC acquired university status. PCU is one of the two major mainline Protestant (related with the United Church of Christ in the Philippines and The United Methodist Church) universities at the heart of Metro Manila. The other is Trinity University of Asia under the auspices of the Episcopal Church.
A distinctively strong Christian University integrating faith, character and service, meeting individual and communal needs towards building up and enhancing a quality of life a humane society. PCU Mission
We at Philippine Christian University, a church-related academic institution, are committed to provide an education that will enhance the development of Christian character. We are committed to an education that is University in caliber which promotes the continuing search and moral application of truth, knowledge and wisdom that stir full intellectual and spiritual capacity. We are involved in education that is Filipino in perspective relevant to the Philippine needs and conditions, and which contribute to total national development. We believe in the ecumenical movement and support the aims and goal of the various ecumenical institutions and agencies. We believe that the essence of being God’s children is to become better stewards of God’s creation and resources. We share the broader supranational perspective that will promote international understanding and goodwill.
The instrument that will be used is a researcher-made questionnaire checklist to gather the needed data for the student’s profile. The draft of the questionnaire will be drawn out based on the Researcher’s readings, previous studies, and professional literature. The researcher initially engaged in average and above-average students’ viewpoints, studies, etc. in order to get broad notions about the problems they have encountered academically inside the classrooms. The problems they have cited and other data gathered were integrated into a questionnaire, which is fanned out to respondents for validation. The data collecting used in the study were the following:
1.) Questionnaire Checklist Form. The researchers made this instrument to organize the socio-demographic profile of the student respondents. The age, sex year level and curriculum were indicated in this instrument. Indicators were categorized and listed to determine the factor that has the greatest impact among the student. 2.) Survey Questionnaire Form Students. This instrument is where the indicators are found and are listed under each factor. Indicators are the problems and/or situations mostly encountered by students. Indicators were categorized to determine the factor that mostly affects the student’s academic performance in Philippine Christian University – Manila.
Data Gathering Procedure
The data for this research will be collected using a survey questionnaire. The survey will be created using suitable questions modified from related research and individual questions formed by the researcher. The survey was comprised of 10 questions, which were related to the participant’s perception regarding academic performance. In the questionnaire, Likert scale was used to determine if the respondent agreed or disagreed in a statement.
After the professor validated the questionnaire, these will be distributed to the 3rd year BSHRM student of Philippine Christian University – Manila. The researchers assured confidentiality of their survey sheets since the identities are not important. The researchers also understood that people’s consciousness may also affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey, and so, the researchers gave people the option of being anonymous. Permission was sought from the college Dean of HRM department of PCU Manila to conduct the study of student’s academic performance. Then, the survey forms were collected and respondents were assured that their responses would be treated with highest confidentiality. Statistical Treatment of Data
Responses to the questionnaire by HRM third year students were statistically analyzed with the data requirements of the study. Students were statistically analyzed with the data instruments of the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency count, mean, per cent and rank are considered.
1. What is the Student profile of the students in terms of? Formula: ×=∑×
Where: ∑×= sum of all data
N= number of respondents
The Respondent of study the research used the percentage formula is
Formula: % F
F = frequency
N = Number of Respondents
2. What if the WGA of the students in the following major subjects? 1. HRM subjects
Relative Frequency Distribution
rf = f
Where: rf = relative frequency
f = frequency of each class interval
n = total number of observation
Arithmetic Mean. If most of the values occur more than once, each value may be multiplied by the frequency of each occurrence in the set. Thus,
X = ΣX
Where: X = the mean
ΣX = sum of the scores in distribution
N = number of score