Chapter and robust organic waste (paper, tissues,


1  Background Waste is a part of everything that is no longer usedor something that can no longer be used and has to be thrown away. Wasteusually originates from human activities (industrial activities are included), but not biologic activities (because human waste is not included), and isusually solid (Azwar, 1990). The source of waste varies from households, markets, offices, public building, industries, and common roads. The rapid development and the growth of the humanpopulation in the urban areas causes a vaster and a more congested settlements. And the escalation of human activities, further increases the production ofwaste.

Other factors that contribute to the increase of waste production otherthan human activites are : the number of population, waste management system, geographical condition, times and seasons, technology, and also economical andsocial bearings (Depkes RI, 1987). Depending on its chemical compositions, waste can bedivided into organic waste and inorganic waste. A study about solid municipialwaste in Indonesia shows us that 80% of all the solid waste is organic, and 78%of it is indeed reusable (Outerbridge, ed., 1991). According to Murtadho andSaid (1987), organic waste are divided into easily rotting organic waste (foodwaste, etc.) and robust organic waste (paper, tissues, etc.) The activity of waste dumping is an endlessactivity.

And because of that, a well-organized waste management system isneeded. Meanwhile, waste managament in urban areas is having hard time in termsof collecting the waste and finding a place or land big and safe enough toactually dump all this waste that we are producing(Soeryani et al, 1997). Therefore, a preventive way of waste management can be done, that is byutilizing waste and one example is by composting it (Damanhuri, 1988). 1   CHAPTERIIDISCUSSION2. 1 Waste CompostingCompost is anatural (organic) fertilizer which is usually made of leaves and other organiccomposition that are deliberately added to increase the rate of rotting, suchas manure, or if considered as a need, inorganic, factory-made fertilizer canbe added to, such as urea (Wied, 2004). Municipal waste can also be used as acompost, noted that before it is processed as a compost, municipal waste has tobe sorted first, rubbish has to be separated. So that only the garbage wasteare used (Wied, 2004).

What’s uniqueabout composting compared to other waste processing is that in composting, beit the materials, the processing place, or even the process of production canbe done by anyone and anywhere. Compost can be used for many plants and crops. Even with only spreading it around the surface of soil, it can increase thesoil’s fertility and also maintain it. Especially on newly harvested land, inwhich the fertility level is usually lower. According toUnus (2002), there is a lot of factors that can affect waste composting, be itbiotic or abiotic. Those factors in particular are :·        Materialseparation           : materials that areviewed as robust or no degradable should be separated, such as metals andplastics.·        Material shape                  : the smaller and morehomogenic the materials are, the faster and better the composting process isgoing to be. Because smaller and homogenic bears a larger surface area for themicrobe to do its job.

·         2 Nutrients                          : for the microbes to do the work, thewaste must contain Carbohydrate, for example between 20% – 40% of thecarbohydrate used is assimilated to cell components and Carbon Dioxide.·        Water contentthat is optimum for composting is around 50% – 70%, especially during the firstphase. Sometimes in some materials the water content can be up to 85%, as foundin hay. In addition to theconditions mentioned above, there are still some other requirements tha inessence is to fasten up the process of composting, such as, homogenity, aeration, and starter (microbe substance) addition. For the composting processto run smoothly, then all of the conditions and requirements must be paidattention to.

Optimum conditions can be seen in Table 1. Table 1. Optimum Condition for Composting  Parameter   Rate C/N – material ratio 30 – 35 : 1 C/P – material ratio 75 – 150 : 1 Shape/size of material 1, 3 – 3, 3, cm for factory process   3, 3  –  7, 6  cm  for usual/traditional       process Water Content 50 – 60 % Aeration 0, 6 – 1, 8 m3 water/day/kg materials are   always termophilic Maximum Temperature 55oC Soruce : Unus, (2002) 2. 2 The Main Materials of CompostingComposting or compostmaking is a biological process, because during the process some livingmicrobes, such as bacteria and fungi, plays an important role. (Unus, 2002). Furtherexplained, for the microbes in the material processing to work perfectly, theserequirements below must be met : ·         3 Materials’ water content : freshlycollected leaves are not dry, thus the water content meets the requirement forit to be processed as a compost.

As for the dry leaves, the water content hasdecreased significantly. This issuse must be paid attention to, considering theeffects on the microbes’ activities. Given that the leaves are already too dry, than an enough amount of water must be added for the leaves to be damp enough.·        The C (Carbon)to N (Nitrogen) ratio : with this ratio, composting process can run smoothlyand also producing a high quality compost, the highest grade is 30, which meansthe content of C compared to the content of N is 30: 1. For exapmle, five partsof garbage consisting of leaves, mixed with manure, will reach a C/N ratio ofaround 30, or       five parts of thosegarbage mixed with sew mud will also reach a C/N ratio of around 30. On theother hand, five parts of hay must be mixed with three parts of manure or fourparts of sew mud to reach a C/N ratio number of 30. 2. 3 Composting ContainerContainers used incomposting varies depending on the condition and also the space available to beused as the vessel of composting (Wied, 2004).

With that in mind, the shape ofthe composting containers can vary, such as :·        A hole withsizing of 100cm x 75cm x 50cm or 2, 5m x 1m x 1m (length, width, and height), can be larger than the sizing mentioned, can also be smaller depending on thespace used as the composting area. The shape of the hole is beginner-friendlyand also all the materials needed can be inserted simply by dropping them. Butthere are drawbacks, especially in rainy season where the materials can belogged by water and also with this hole shape the materials are relatively hardto mix well.

·         4 The tub shape, with walls made upof either bricks, bamboo, or wood, etc. The upside of this shape is that it iseasier to mix the materials well and also it won’t get logged in the rainyseason. The drawback is that this type of vessel that it costs a fair amount ofmoney.·        On the groundsurface only, which means that the pile of the materials are placed straightaway on the ground surface without any tub or hole. With this method awell-mixed compost is very possible. Small possibility of getting logged, butvery prone to animal attacks. 2.

4 Use of Effective Microorganism 4 in Composting. Effective Microorganism 4 (EM4) is a mixed culturein a light brown-coloured medium, has a sour scent, and consists ofmicroorganisms that are benificial to soil fertility. Microorganisms that arein this group include : Lactobacillus sp, Khamir, Actinomycetes, Streptomyces.

EM4 also has a function of fermenting organic substances in the soil, stimulates the growth of other benificial organisms such as nitrogen-bindingbacteria, phosphate solvent and microorganisms that are antagonistic to theplants. EM4 can be used for composting, because it has theability to speed up the process of organic waste decomposition (Sugihmoro, 1994). Every organic substance will be fermented by the EM4 at 40 – 50o C. In the fermentationprocess, there are some results released in the form of sugar, alcohol, vitamins, lactic acid, amino acid, and other organic substances. This processof fermenting organic waste does not release any heat and odor, thus bugs andother pests does not reproduce there.

The result of this fermentation is calledbokashi. 2. 5 Waste Management from Pancasila and Undang Undang PerspectiveThe attempt ofupgrading the standard for public health is a part of the medical field thataims to realising a healthy enviornment and also a fair and just society basedon the Pancasila and Undang Undang Dasar 1945. In the GBHN 1999 – 2004 thosedevelopments include a development in general health, where the general healthdevelopment is an integral part of the national development. 5 According to the Undang – UndangNo. 23 Article 1 Chapter 1 of 1992 considering health cited “ That health is a state of having a body, soul, and social prosperity and enable a person to live a productive lifesocially and economically”.

The effort of developing a decent health is aresponsibility of both the government and the people of this country in both eitherin maintenance or in developing a better health in the society. The governmentalso regulates the waste that we produce everyday, from domestic to industrialwaste. It is specifically discussed in the Undang – Undang No. 18 of 2008. Inthis part of the Undang – Undang, it is cited that each and every one of Indonesiancitizen is prohibited from :·        Bringing wasteinto the region of The Republic of Indonesia·        Importing waste·        Mixing dangerousand poisonous waste·        Processing wastethat cause enviromental pollution and or damage·        Littering·        Doing a wasteprocessing with an open disposal place and or·        Burning wastethat does not fit the technical requirements of waste processing.               6  CHAPTER IIICLOSING3. 1 ConclusionSolid waste disposalactivity is an endless activity. Therefore, a well-thought solution for wastemanagement is indeed needed.

The management of urban solid waste has somedifficulties in collecting the solid waste and also finding a place safe enoughto actually dispose the waste. Thus, composting is needed to combat this issue. Compost is a natural (organic) fertilizer which is usually made of leaves andother organic composition that are deliberately added to increase the rate ofrotting, such as manure, or if considered as a need, inorganic, factory-madefertilizer can be added to, such as urea. Composting is unique, because it is asimple process and can be done by almost everyone and everywhere. EffectiveMicroorganism 4 (EM4) is a mixed culture in a light brown-coloured medium, hasa sour scent, and consists of microorganisms that are benificial to soilfertility.

Microorganisms that are in this group include : Lactobacillus sp, Khamir, Actinomycetes, Streptomyces. EM4 also has a function of fermenting organicsubstances in the soil, stimulates the growth of other benificial organismssuch as nitrogen-binding bacteria, phosphate solvent and microorganisms thatare antagonistic to the plants. Our constitution clearly emphasiszes andsupports a well-designed waste management system. In the Undang – Undang No. 18of 2008 this issue of waste management is clearly disucessed with greatassertion in this part of the Undang – Undang. 7