Characteristics of civilized societies and civilization

Characteristics of civilized societies and civilization
1. Some form of urban life involving the construction of permanent settlements—cities
2. A system of government that regulates political Relations
3. The development of distinct social classes, distinguished from one another by two related factors: wealth and occupation.
4. Specialized tools and skills for the production of goods, leading to the rise of manufacturing and trade.
5. Some form of written communication, making it possible to share and preserve information.
6. A shared system of religious belief, whose officials or priests often play a significant role in community affairs (Cunningham and Reich).
How was national unity maintained in ancient Egypt, despite the differences between the regions of the Upper and Lower Nile?
“ National unity was maintained by a strong central government firmly controlled by the Pharaoh who was regarded as a living god” (Cunningham and Reich).
Three universal questions that touch upon in the Epic of Gilgamesh
“ Is all human achievement futile in the face of death? “
“ Is there a purpose to human existence?”
“ If so, how can it be discovered?” (Cunningham and Reich).
How did the focus of Mycenaean art and architecture differ from that of the Minoans?
“ Unlike the relaxed culture of the Minoans, Mycenaean culture as reflected in its art was preoccupied with death and war” (Cunningham and Reich).
Greek myth of the Minotaur and the Labyrinth
“ A Labyrinth that housed the Minotaur, a monstrous creature, half man and half bull, the product of the union of Minos’s wife Pasiphae with a bull. Minos exacted from Athens a regular tribute of seven boys and seven girls, who was sent to be devoured by the Minotaur. The Athenian hero Theseus volunteered to stop the grisly tribute. He went to Knossos with the new group of intended victims and, with the help of the king’s daughter Ariadne, killed the Minotaur in its lair in the middle of the Labyrinth. He then escaped with Ariadne and the Athenian boys and girls. Theseus later abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos, but the god Dionysus discovered her there and comforted her” (Cunningham and Reich).
What aspect of the first chapter most intrigued you?
The civilization process/ stage among the Greeks. The process was slow but intriguing because the amount of technology was limited. The architects came up with different design models including doric and iconic.
How did the physical geography of Greece affect the development of the states?
The mountains separated the city states; hence the states were able to develop independently.
What are the causes of the many contradictions in Classical Greek mythology?
There is no concrete evidence that backs the events in the myths. Distortion of the original events is prone to happen, leading to contradictions.
How did the Doric style differ from the Ionic style or order of architecture (consider the base, capital, frieze)?
Doric has a regula, metope and mutulehile ionic has more flutes and a smaller base.
According to Herodotus, why were the Persians defeated? The Persians were over-numbered by their enemies.
What Greek word does Herodotus use for his explanation? What is the English translation of this word?
Hoplite- meaning an armed infantry.
How did the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey come into being?
The poems came into existence during the Mycenaean period. The Iliad justifies Mycean control of the sea passage while Odssey justifies their colonization of Sicily Italy.
What do you think is the most unique quality of the Early Greek Era?
The civilization of the Greeks is the biggest quality that they possessed. The early inhabitants came up with complex designs despite their limited resources and knowledge.
CUNNINGHAM, LAWRENCE, and JOHN REICH. Culture And Values; A Survey of The Humanities. 7th ed. Boston, MA 02210-1202 USA: Wadsworth, 2010. Print.. 1-26