Classical and operant conditioning

ICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING The two important concepts of the psychology of behavior are the ical and operant conditioning. Notwithstanding the fact that both bring certain results in learning, the processes of each are different having as followers as opponents of these theories. To understand the nature how each of these behavior techniques are used, it is important to figure out the difference between the classical and operant conditioning.
With the development of the first type of classical conditioning learning made by Ivan Pavlov, it became possible to study a new behavior through the process of association. It means that two stimuli that are linked together produce a new learned response in an animal or human. Each of the three stages of the stimuli and responses were given the scientific terms, such as before conditioning, during conditioning and after conditioning. Pavlov’s famous experiment with the dog demonstrated how classical conditioning involved pairing of the previously neutral stimulus. During the experiment he used a bell as the unconditioned stimulus, which was further associated with the food taste. The researcher observed the producing of salivation when food was placed in the dogs mouth. Then he rang the bell and gave the dog food. In several repetitions, the dog salivated to the bell only, showing the conditioned response. To prove the theory, there was conducted an experiment with the cat. An owner was standing in the kitchen and called a cat by knocking the ceramic plate or opening the refrigerator. When the cat was little, it did not come to the kitchen hearing these sounds. In a certain time, the cat associated every opening of the fridge and knocking sounds with the time to have meals.
The other conditioning term, operant, refers to how a body operates on the environment or how human or animals respond to what is presented to them in that environment. Operant conditioning can be thought as a result of learning from the natural consequences of one’s actions. People learn operant conditions every day in their lives. If something one does leads to a positive result, it is more likely to one to do the same thing again. Operant conditioning draws its attention on using reinforcement or punishment to enhance or reduce a behavior. An association then is formed between the certain behavior and its consequences. The experiment with the cat who wants milk. The cat knows that every time the owner is on the kitchen and the cat comes for “ sweet-talk” walking around the owner’s legs, it will obviously obtain some milk. The next time, when the cat observes the same situation, it starts its “ performance” once again and the target is achieved- the milk is in the plate. Such positive learning or the previous experience that the cat had in the past is the operant conditioning.
To be able to identify the differences between classical and operant conditioning, it is necessary to focus on the behavior, whether it is of free- will or dictated. Classical conditioning is the association between the dictated response and a stimulus. The operant conditioning focuses on association between a free- will behavior and a consequence of such behavior. During the operant conditioning, the learner is usually rewarded, while classical conditioning does not mean such attraction. One should also know that during the classical conditioning the learner performs passive part and operant conditioning, on the contrary, requires the learner to participate actively to be rewarded. Today both conditioning are used for a wide variety of purposes by people of different professions and occupations.
McLeod, S., 2014. Classical Conditioning, Simply Psychology, Available from http://www. simplypsychology. org/classical-conditioning. html
Staddon, J., & Cerutti, T., Operant Conditioning, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 54: 115-144, Available from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1473025/