Diseases of the human body ii

Diseases of the Human Body II This paper describes causes symptoms, signs, and treatment of different diseases of the human body. Key words: causes, symptoms, signs, treatment Diseases of the Human Body II Introduction Human body can be affected by different types of diseases. The diseases have various causes, symptoms, signs, and treatment that doctors look out for during their diagnosis. This paper describes causes, signs, symptoms, and treatment of different diseases of the human body. Systemic Features of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Diagnosis and Treatment Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or simply Lupus is a multi-factorial autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies. The ANA are directed against naked DNA and entire nucleosomes causing immune complexes to accumulate in vessel walls, glomeruli and joints. The accumulated material may cause a hypersensitivity reaction type III. The reaction is manifested as glomerulonephritis, arthritis and general vasculitis. Research suggests that the increased removal or disturbance of cleared nuclear DNA-protein complexes can provide good conditions for the development of the disease in human beings. This occurs after the death of the cell which leads to Dnase 1 responsible for serum, urine and secreta removes the DNA in the nuclear antigens areas of high cell turnover, hence helping in the prevention of the occurrence of SLE (Tamparo, Tatro & Lewis, 2011). The advancement in medical research has established scientific means through which SLE can be diagnosed and treated. For diagnosis detection of antinuclear antibody in the body forms the basis tests. The disease can also be diagnosed using any four of the eleven criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology. This means that appearing of any four or more conditions described in the guidelines is an indication that that is a case of SLE. However, completed diagnosis must be based on proper assemblage of clinical results and reliable evidences from laboratory tests. SLE is incurable and therefore the treatment measures are aimed at reducing the effects of the disease. It involves use of prescribed drugs and also off shell labels that help to suppress the conditions such as skin flares besides reducing the duration when severity is likely to occur (Tamparo, Tatro & Lewis, 2011). Causes, Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Otitis Media Otitis media is an eardrum disease that may be caused by fungi, virus, or bacteria. Most cases are bacterial in nature. It is characterized by the building of pressure in the eardrum which may lead to the bursting of the eardrum. However, the body’s immune system secretes antibody fluids that naturally heal the busted eardrum. Viruses cause otitis media by way of destroying the normal defenses of the epithelial cells in found in the upper respiratory tract. In the initial stages otitis media is characterized by signs of sore throats, colds or other respiratory problems that quickly spreads to the middle ear. In the advanced stage otitis media is characterized by ear pain or discomfort described as earache which is usually mild and may feel like there is high pressure inside the ear. There may be outflow of pus-like drainage from the ear accompanied by hearing loss. The disease is diagnosed through the use otoscope while examining the ear. By looking at the response of eardrum to pressure can be decided whether it is otitis media or any other ear infection. Further information can be gotten through lab tests including the audiogram which involves sounding of tones at different pitches to determine how much hearing is lost. In addition, a test to measure the ear pressure called tympanogram can also be done to indicate the functionality of the Eustachian tube. Otolaryngologist may also collect a culture from the ear for testing in more intermittent cases. In mild cases, the body defense system is able to deal with the infections caused by bacterial and virus in the ear that might be responsible for otitis media. However, in severe cases doctors prescribe antibiotics in cases the cause is suspected to be bacteria. The form or administration will be depended on the severity and the duration is going to take to heal the ear. In cases where the Eustachian tube is not functioning properly, surgery may be done to remove adenoids. The surgery will allow for the creation of a drainage system to allow the fluid to come out in a process called myringotomy. In addition, preventive surgery may be done to prevent future infections of the eardrum and also to keep the ear clean and dry (Tamparo, Tatro & Lewis, 2011). Pathological Characteristic and Treatment Plan of Osteoarthritis Patient The pathological characteristic of osteoarthritis as implied in the name involve the inflammation of joints even though the disease is long associated with joint diseases characterized by loss and erosion of articular cartilage, subchondral sclerosis, and bone overgrowth (osteophytes). As such, the disease is thought to include several others or is secondary to other main diseases of the joints. The disease is also assumed to be a secondary disease to patients of arthritis with inflammatory arthritides. Equally revealed is the mechanical and genetic relation displayed in the occurrence of osteoporosis. Since osteoarthritis is confused with many other inflammatory diseases, a proper diagnosis will form the initial stages of treating the disease. The diagnosis will be based on the signs and symptoms which may include joint pains, swelling, and even a hypertrophy in characteristic joints followed by an x-ray confirmation. Treatment will be based on mechanisms to prevent weight loss for hip and knee, protection of joint, and strengthening of muscles in the area surrounding the muscles (Tamparo, Tatro & Lewis, 2011). Causative Factors of Hallux valgus (bunion), Hallux rigidus, and Hammer toe Hallux valgus is mainly caused by long-term wearing of sharp pointed shoes that forces the big toe to bent and adjust to the shape of the shoe. The condition is not exhibited in societies that traditionally do not wear shoes. Hallux rigidus is caused by the spur in the bones which cause the rigidity and immobility of bones in a degenerative way. The condition can be corrected through surgery. Hammer toe is caused by shoes that are too tight in the toe box or shoes that have high heels (Tamparo, Tatro & Lewis, 2011). Reference Tamparo, C. D., Tatro, M. A. & Lewis, R. N. (2011). Diseases of the Human Body. New York: Davis