P2: Discuss theories ofcommunication. Part A The communication cycle is a commonly used theory of communication. It was first developed by Charles Berner in 1965; it was then modified by Michael Argyle, who was a social psychologist, in 1972. The concept of a ‘ communication cycle’ makes it clear that, in order to have effective communication, it must be a two way process. As well as transferring messages to others in a definite, clear way, healthcare professionals must be able to respond to the verbal feedback as well as the non-verbal feedback.
So, effective communication has to involve effort from both participators (both the sender as well as the receiver) in the communication. The communication cycle has six stages. Stage one is when ideas occur, this makes us think and assess the situation that we are in before we start to communicate. We need to think about what we are trying to say, and how to say this in a clear, effective way. Stage two is when the message is coded and here we have to be aware of the different methods that we can use to send our message.
We should try and consider the most effective communication method depending on the situation and the person with whom we will be communicating. Stage three is when the message gets sent. We need to make sure that we have chosen the most effective method of communication, and that we have used this communication method in the most correct way. We should not try and rush the message being sent because that could cause misunderstanding between the two people who are communicating. Stage four is whenever the message gets perceived by the receiver.
The service user has to make sense of the message given to them. As health care professionals, we should be aware of the potential difficulties and be aware of how to take steps in order to lessen these difficulties. Stage five is when the message gets decoded. The service user tries to make meaning of what you have just communicated to them. Here, we have to clarify and check out how much of the information is being understood. This clarification should be carried out on a continual basis, not just at the end of the conversation.
Finally, stage six is whenever the message gets understood, and then the receiver of the message then becomes the sender of the new message in the form of feedback. You must allow plenty of time for feedback, remembering that it will be both verbal and nonverbal; this involves listening with your eyes, ears and body language. Part B Mrs Hedges is a resident in anursinghome. Recently, her hearing has declined and she now relies on a hearing aid to enable communication. Three weeks ago, Mrs Hedge’s granddaughter was involved in an accident and since been in hospital.
Herfamilyhave been reluctant to tell Mrs Hedges of her granddaughter’s condition as they do not want to upset her. Mrs Hedges was used to seeing her granddaughter on a regular basis; she often popped in on her own to spend time with her granny. Mrs Hedges has started to worry about her granddaughter and the family have asked that you help them break the news. . “ A relationship without communication will definitely fail. If you attempt to have a relationship without communication, both people involved in the relationship will have differentgoalsand objectives. ANGEL, G, 2010. Title [The importance of the communication cycle]. [16. 10. 12]. Available from World Wide Web : < http://www. helium. com/items/1746915-communication-cycle> The importance of the communication cycle cannot and should not be underestimated. Below, I am going to discuss why I think it is important to follow the communication cycle and why it is important for effective communication. The sender should be aware that the person with whom they will be communicating is hard of hearing, and are wearing a hearing aid.
The dispatcher of the communication should be able to select the most effective form of communication in order to communicate the message at hand. The sender must think about how to communicate the message in a sensitive way that the receiver will understand. The communicator should be on the same level as the receiver of the communication; this allows the receiver (Mrs Hedges) to read facial expression and, if possible, lip read. Being on the same level as the receiver of the communication, also allows them to focus and listen more efficiently.
The speaker must thoroughly think through what he or she is going to say, and the method in which they want to say it. They must evaluate and decide whether to use verbal or nonverbal communication, or a mix of the two. If they have chosen verbal communication, they must figure out a way to communicate in a non-patronising way that will still be as effective. If nonverbal communication is chosen, the correct method of nonverbal communication should be chosen. Effective communication must happen in order to meet Mrs Hedges’ needs, to help her feel re assured, safe and secure.
In this particular case, I think that a mixture of both verbal and nonverbal communication is requisite. Using speech along with caring and reassuring touch will be effective in making Mrs Hedges feel cared for and safe. The communicator should speak in a normal fashion that Mrs Hedges will not find condescending, but that you speak in a slightly slower pace than usual; this makes your speech clearer. Communicate the message to Mrs Hedges at a time when she is least likely to be tired, as when you are tired, your hearing is decreased anyway.
Verbal communication is so important, especially when delivering such a delicate message, so make sure to use simple, short sentences, and make sure that MRs Hedges has understood, you could do this by asking questions such as ‘ are you following me? ’ or ‘ Do you have any questions, Mrs Hedges? ’. If she hasn’t understood the message, refrain from repeating the same sentence over again, instead the sender of the message should try re-phrasing the sentence. Nonverbally, facial expression and hand movements, body language and touch are vital.
If Mrs Hedges gets upset, it is important that the communicator re assures her by caring gestures, such as gentle, friendly touch, the carer could put their hand on Mrs Hedge’s shoulder, to comfort her. The carer must be able to communicate effectively to Mrs Hedges so that Mrs Hedges fully understands the message. This is also important as it is useful to know how to effectively communicate so that Mrs Hedges’ needs are met and that she feels safe, secure and re-assured. This will also help her feel valued, and her self-esteem will be boosted by default as the communication is 100% effective.
Part C Another theory of communication is Tuckman’s theory of group development. First developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, it is one of the more well-known group/team development theories and has been the basis of many other ideas since its birth. Tuckman’s theory focuses on the way that a team tackles a task from the initial formation of the team right the way through to the completion of the given project. Tuckman’s theory is relevant in particular to team building challenges as each individual phase can affect the completion of the task at hand.
Basically, Tuckman’s model explains that, as the team develops maturity and ability, the relationships within the team get more established, and the leader changes his or herleadershipstyle, according to the developmental stage of the group. In this group development cycle, there are four main stages although later on, Tuckman added a fifth stage to the cycle (although this is not used by everybody). The first stage, forming, is the stage where the group is put together for the first time, and where all the group members meet one another for the first time, so naturally, this is the most awkward stage of the developmental cycle.
The group is thought to be at the “ honeymoon stage”- the group members are all naturally shy, and are all aware of their feelings and the feelings of others. In this stage, there is a high dependence on the leader by most of the team members, for guidance and direction. There is little agreement between team members on the aims and purposes of the team, other than what is given by the team leader. Individual roles and responsibilities of team members are somewhat unclear.
The leader should be prepared as the team members will have a lot of questions to ask, and the leader will have to be confident so that the team members can feel confident too, and also they will have a sense of security. The second stage, storming, is the stage where the most conflict occurs. The team will begin to gain comfort with one another, and so the team will start to address the task suggesting possible ideas, and different ideas may compete for the favour of the group, and if this is badly managed, it can result in being very destructive for the team.
This phase is described as the ‘ make or break’ moments for the team, as in the team relationships will either me made or broken. In this stage, it is essential that the team has a strong facilitative leadership in this phase. There is a stronger clarity of purpose, but plenty of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there might be power struggles within the group. The third stage, Norming, is where the team begins to ‘ find their feet’ a bit more.
The norming phase is a gradual move towards harmonious team-working. The team becomes more united and begins to agree on rules, purposes, values and aims on which they all agree to operate. In an ideal world, teams will begin to trust themselves more and each member will begin to value the contribution of other team members. In this phase, you will find that the team leader is able to take a step back as individual members become more comfortable with each other and so take on greaterresponsibility.
A potential risk during the norming stage is that the team will become complacent and will lose their creative edge or themotivationthat brought them to the team in the first place. The group on a whole is able to make larger decisions, and smaller decisions get delegated to individual team members, adding to the harmony of the group. Outside of the ‘ teamenvironment’ the team members may engage in social activities together. The fourth stage, performing, is when the team members are working at their optimum level as a united body.
The group can be described as being in ‘ flow’ – all of the team members are contributing equally to the team and as a result of this; the team is making excellent progress. When I think of a good team working together as one, I think of the metaphor of a human body; every part of the human body is required for the body to work properly and at optimum level, and this is the same as a team working together. In this stage of group development, each group member can help the other members out by giving them advice, instruction and constructive criticism where necessary.
Teams that are performing at optimum level are identified by high independence levels and motivation is evident as well as each team member being highly competent and knowledgeable in the aims they want to achieve, and the main ideas of their team project. Decision making within the team is done as one entity and each team member has a high level ofrespectfor each individual team member. …PART D… (TO BE DONE NEXT WEEK) http://www. teambuilding. co. uk/Forming_Storming_Norming_Performing. html http://www. businessballs. com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming. htm