Ethical theories research paper examples

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, there has been a significant increase in a process of migration. By the beginning of the 21st century there were estimated 36-42 million only migrant workers, with their families -80-97 million people, according to some estimates – even 120 million (Bader, 2005). What are the reasons causing migration, and what are the dangers and problems it carries? Migration of population is population movements associated with relocation. It is a complex social process that performs important functions in the life of society and the individual.
The historical role of migration processes are associated with settling the land, education, and the mixing of races and peoples; economic – with economic development of land, development of productive forces, uniting of distributed natural resources and means of production to the labor force; social – associated with full realization of people’s needs in housing, employment, social and professional promotion, etc.
Migration may be permanent (moving to permanent or long-term residence) and temporary, seasonal (moving for a relatively short period of time). According to the UN methodology, migrants are persons who are living in a new place for more than 6 months.

The main reasons for migration are the following (Seglow, 2005):

1. Movement of people in search of a better life;
2. Escape from places of warfare;
3. Fleeing from justice.
Among the causes of migration, prevailing value belongs to socio-economic factors. However, in some periods in different countries there are put forward in the first place political, national, religious factors. During wars (global and local), the main contingents of migrants are refugees and displaced persons.
The most popular cause of migration, of course, is the migration in the search for a better life. Millions of people each year move to a permanent residence in other countries. The largest flows of migrants go to the United States and Western Europe. What are the reasons encouraging these countries to take the migrants? The main overriding reason is that in these rich countries it is not prestigious to get engaged in dirty and low-paid work, there is no potential employees for such positions and the output remains in one – attracting foreign labor. Europeans want ” slaves”, but not in the original concept of the word ” slave”, but rather those who will, for a little money and the opportunity to stay and live in the country, work, work long and hard at not prestigious jobs. Few of the immigrants in the first or second generation have a good salary, own apartment or house or have an expensive car.
Escape from places of warfare and fleeing from justice does not require explanation. Refugees are removed from their places of permanent residence in search of peaceful, secure place. Also, many people are fleeing from persecution for justice for the crimes committed.

Now experts define three types of migration:

1) The internal migration within a country or region;
2) Interstate, when migration involves the movement of people to the neighboring countries;
3) Transnational, observed when migrants cross the territory of several countries, perhaps in different ways, but in particular final country.
In countries with extensive territory, a variety of geographic and economic conditions there is particularly widespread internal migration, which is based on the same reasons as that of the external: the search for jobs and housing, the differences in wages and living standards, professional development opportunities, national and social safety, etc.
Feature of the global migration process are qualitative changes resulting from STR, the essence of which is to increase substantially proportion of skilled migrants. Today, this process has some new features (Bader, 2005).
First. In place of the brain drain, there came their circulation: diversification of directed migration took place. The U. S. continues to be a recognized center of attraction for professionals. But at the same time, representatives of the professional elite of the industrialized countries, as already mentioned, go on temporary work in developing countries.
Second. Fundamentally new phenomenon was not only the movement of professionals to the capital, but also at the same time as capital or right after it. First of all, it is related to the great opportunities for career development professionals.
Third. The current level of migration of professionals is inherent in a fundamentally different organizational level, reflected in the emergence of a kind of international corporation of bounty hunters.
Fourth. There is integration of higher education system. It involves continuing education for students from many countries, for example, in the U. S. or Japan (for Chinese students). Unconditional is performance of this method for training specialists for the sending countries. However, many of them do not return home.
It should also be noted that countries which had in the past status of a metropolis, are oriented to import labor from its former colonies and dependent countries. If to the traditional migration countries (USA, Canada, Australia, South Africa) in the XIX century and the first half of the twentieth century exclusively Europeans went, in the 80 – 90s, they were a small part of migrants. The immigration flows to these countries were dominated by immigrants from Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Caribbean (Inda, 2008).
One of the characteristic features of the present stage of international labor migration has become more and more active government intervention in the process. It regulates transactions in the global labor market, gives permission for entry and departure, monitors the terms of migrants engaged in recruitment and the creation of favorable conditions for the employment of foreign workers.
Common scourge is illegal migration and almost every day, say, in Spain or Italy, there are reports that there was detained some ship, in which migrants circumvent the law trying to get to the ” promised land”, where they can live with dignity. The relevance of illegal migration becomes important due to the activation of international extremist and terrorist organizations, as well as expansion of drug smuggling. The leaders of many countries are concerned that illegal immigrants have a negative impact on the socio-economic and criminal situation.
Migration as a prime example of people’s desire to seek any form of income and material gain is accompanied by criminal activity. Organized crime in the world has a huge amount of recruits from illegal migrants. This happens regardless of race or creed. Often people are forced to become an illegal migrant, dissatisfied with their position and status, having no means for livelihood (Inda, 2008).
Direct link between illegal immigration and drug has long ago been established and has become a headache of many governments around the world. Information and statistics about the involvement of the mass illegal migration into smuggling and distribution of illicit drugs is reflected in the records and reports of the leading international organizations.
What are the cons of illegal immigration? First, there is exacerbated interethnic situation. Gap between locals and migrants, if they profess a different religion or have different color skin, increases, and the problem could spill over beyond patience, pouring into the streets in the form of riots, ethnic crimes. Second, people from the Caucasus countries and the countries of Central Asia, most of them do not have a clue on honest business. There is a problem of high-level criminality – drug trafficking, arms trafficking, prostitution, kidnapping, murder, robbery, theft, etc. Illegal migrants are the main offenders.
All the people are different and we cannot help but be aware of it. Xenophobia is a natural human characteristic. As natural as curiosity. Meeting with uncertainty usually brings some danger, possibly fatal, and an opportunity to acquire new knowledge and skills. Individual or population, implementing a successful survival strategy, will always show a normal reaction to a new – a mixture of curiosity and suspicion. Absence of one of the components dooms inevitable defeat.
At the level of social, cultural or ideological groups, these assertions are obvious and not disputed by anyone. Problems begin exclusively on the ethnic level. It seems that the people that reject categorically ethnic generalizations, are simply deprived of the receptors responsible for the recognition of friend or foe. There live in the world colorblind people, and there is nothing with it. However, color-blind do not require foaming at the mouth for normal people to abandon their ” wrong” picture of the world.
In every society, from time to time the balance of curiosity and suspicion towards foreigners is broken. Both in one or another direction. The reasons vary widely, but for any people there is a threshold number of guests, followed by growth in the number of ” foreign” is perceived as a threat to the very ethnic identity. Threshold height may vary, and from economic and demographic conditions, and political well-being of the indigenous ethnic group, and the degree of complementarity of the guests and hosts. However, the very existence of a threshold cannot be undone. If the number of migrants obviously exceeds the capabilities of the hosts to integrate newcomers, excesses are inevitable.
The last ten years have seen an alarming rapid growth in instances of intolerance, discrimination, racism and xenophobia in the form of open violence suffered by workers in almost every region of the world. Studies show that racial discrimination in the workplace can have a serious impact on the situation of minorities and migrant workers and the future development and career of their children. Employees who are discriminated on the grounds of their race, color, national origin, ethnicity, experience stress, anger and fatigue, which may ultimately affect the quality of labor.
The study of international experience in social work with immigrants shows that in this process a crucial role is played by the government policy, the actual implementation of which in all spheres of public activity provides a clearly defined program on relations between different communities.
Establishing good relations between different communities involves giving immigrants a strong legal status and equal opportunities for their participation in various spheres of society. Only on this basis there can develop equitable international relations and livelihoods diaspora. Based on the experience of other countries, it can be concluded that the policy and technology in ethnic relations and work with immigrants must necessarily be formed with a number of principles:
First, it is necessary to proceed from the assumption that most immigrants will remain permanent (or long-time) residents in the host country and that they can make an important contribution to its economy.
Second, we need to be aware of the crucial role of public authorities in promoting the adaptation and integration of immigrants and the development of good relations between people. This, in turn, gives reason to believe that there will be provided the legal basis for measures aimed at achieving equal opportunities, anti-discrimination and workers, where necessary, implement a successful integration of immigrants. On the other hand, immigrants should be encouraged to develop a sense of belonging to a new society; authorities and NGOs should take immigrants and their leaders as essential partners in establishing between public relations.
Third, it should be understood that the integration and the establishment of good relations between local people and migrants is a process designed for a long period. International conventions and experience of several countries show that immigrants who have lived a long time in the host country, especially those who were born in it, should be able to seamlessly obtain citizenship, which would be the most effective method of developing a sense of belonging to society, in which they live. In the face of the deteriorating situation of migration, it is important to establish in places where immigration official bodies are involved in the implementation and to coordinate actions to achieve equal opportunities for migrants, their integration and assimilation. Legal measures to combat discrimination should be supplemented by other means, especially in the field of education and information aimed at the solution of specific problems of different categories of migrants in the host country.
Government entities should begin effective measures together with employers and trade unions to achieve de facto equality of opportunities for migrants and the local population. Great work in this can be held by the local authorities. Deserve every kind of support those local government entities that undertake at least partially work to ensure a sufficient number of migrant housing at reasonable cost through various mechanisms. The fight against discrimination in housing on the basis of the issue of law and social activities is also important (Benedetto, 2008).
International experience suggests that the forced concentration of immigrants in certain urban neighborhoods or rural areas, which is equivalent to segregation, transformation of these places in the ghetto, is not desirable. At the same time, the violent dispersal of immigrants, is an obstacle to such a settlement if they wish, causing arrived doubt, carefulness, distrust of government. The rapid dispersal of arrived immigrants is insecure in terms of ensuring a balanced social structure of the population in certain areas and cities.
It is necessary to take into account the increasingly growing ethnic and cultural diversity of the population in certain regions. Elimination of discrimination and the needs of migrants will be more effective if migration services have persons of immigrant origin. It is the experience of developed countries, from which much can be learned in order to develop working central and local institutions, national, regional and municipal programs that would allow workers to soften the integration into different societies (Bosniak, 2007).
Improving the situation of migrants may occur when activating their own social potential. Countries where there are large numbers of migrants, encouraging emergence of associations of immigrants and ethnic groups (local associations, etc.), with the account of which there are formed social funds for development and implementation of projects that reflect the interests of migrants and refugees. Of paramount importance there is the question of religion, culture, traditions and customs to ensure respect for human rights. The positive results of making those governments seeking to establish contact with people of different faiths and organize them discuss issues that are equally interesting and migrants.
Briefly summarizing the foregoing information, in the organization of social work with migrants there can be identified key areas of advanced work that can significantly improve the effectiveness of social work with immigrants:
– to establish and develop a relationship with international organizations dealing with migration, and participate in their activities;
– the interaction between central and regional government departments and agencies and local authorities, solving the problems of migration and migrants;
– the interaction between government agencies, non-governmental organizations and foundations involved in social protection and assistance to migrants;
– facilitate the establishment of NGOs dealing with migrants;
– strengthen the relationship with foreign organizations dealing with migrants;
– development of optimal structure and standards of stationary and non-stationary institutions of social assistance to migrants in relation to conditions of specific regions;
– organization of various forms of social protection of institutions workers (social protection , rehabilitation centers, crisis hospitals, orphanages, counseling, withdrawal assistance, etc.);
– education and training of professionals working with migrants;
– to develop standards for issuing natural (grocery, clothing, etc.) assistance to migrants;
– sociological and marketing research problem;
– organization of the service public relations;
– development of the legal basis for issuing pensions and benefits to migrants and providing financial assistance;
– development of the legal basis of social, health, medical and pedagogical control of life of migrants;
– development of legal framework prevention of deviant behavior among persons with migrants;
– organizing centers, courses and seminars on training, retraining and advanced training of workers and other problems.
If we take for comparison the theory of relativity and its proposed way to solve the problem with migration, we will see that in this theory there is no right or wrong viewpoint, as everything is relative and valid. Thus, immigration is both important and harmful, which may affect policies implementation of illegal immigration control. In my point of view, utilitarianism here is safer for the country and allows for taking effective measures against the negative effects of immigration that may be relative in their nature, but still pose real danger to the peaceful citizens of the country.


Bader, V. (2005). The ethics of immigration. Constellations, 12(3), 331-361.
Benedetto, M. (2008). Crisis on the Immigration Bench: An Ethical Perspective. J. Nat’l Ass’n Admin. L. Judiciary, 28, 471.
Bosniak, L. (2007). Being here: Ethical territoriality and the rights of immigrants. Theoretical inquiries in law, 8(2), 389-410.
Inda, J. X. (2008). Targeting immigrants: Government, technology, and ethics. John Wiley & Sons.
Seglow, J. (2005). The ethics of immigration. Political Studies Review, 3(3), 317-334.