Therefore, the formation of a virtuous character is the first step towards morally correct behaviour Acquired traits Intellectual virtues Moral virtues Feminist ethics An approach that prioritizes empathy, harmonious and healthy social relationships, care for one another, and avoidance of harm above abstract principles Key elements Relationships – Decisions taken in context Of personal human interrelations Responsibility – Active ‘ taking’ of responsibility, rather than merely ‘ having’ it Experience – Learn and develop from experience
Discourse ethics Aims to solve ethical conflicts by providing a process of norm generation through rational reflection on the real-life experiences of all relevant participants Ultimate goal of ethical issues in business should be the peaceful settlement of conflicts Different parties In a conflict should sit together and engage in a discourse about the settlement Of the conflict, and ultimately provide a situation that is acceptable to all ‘ ideal discourse’ criteria Postmodern ethics An approach that locates morality beyond the sphere of rationality in an emotional ‘ moral impulse’ towards others. It encourages individual ctors to question everyday practices and rules, and to listen to and follow their emotions, inner convictions and ‘ gut feelings’ about what they think is right and wrong in a particular incident of decision-making.
Postmodern business ethics emphasises (Gustafson, 2000: 21) o Holistic approach o Examples rather than principles o ‘ Think local, act local’ Preliminary character Consideration Typical question you might ask yourself Theory One’s own interests Is this really in my, or my organization’s, best -term long interests? Would it be Egoism acceptable and expected for me to think only of the consequences to myself n this situation? Social consequenceslf I consider all of the possible consequences of my actions, for everyone that Utilitarianism is affected, will we be better or worse off overall? How likely are these consequences and how significant are they? Duties to 0th Who do I have obligations to in this situation? What would happen if everybody Ethics of duty acted in the same way as me?
Am treating people only to get what I want for myself (or my organization) or am I thinking also of what they might want too? Entitlements of Whose rights do I need to consider here? Am I respecting fundamental human Ethics of rights thers rights and peopl??? s need for dignity? Fairness Am I treating everyone fairly here? Have processes been set up to allow everyone Theories of justice an equal ch ance? Are there major disparities between the ‘ winners’ and ‘ losers’ that could be avoided? Moral character Am I acting with integrity here? What would a decent, honest person do in the same situation? Care for othersnd How do (or would) the other affected parties feel in this situation? Can I avoid relationships doing harm to others?
Which solution is most likely to preserve healthy and harmonious relationships among those involved? Process of resol ving What norms can we work out together to provide a mutually acceptable solution Discourse ethics conflicts to this problem? How can we achieve a peaceful settlement of this conflict that avoids ‘ railroading’ by the most powerful player? Moral impulse nad Am I just simply going along with the usual practice here, or slavishly following Postmodern ethics emotions the organization’s code, without questioning whether it really feels right to me? How can I get closer to those likely to be affected by my decision? What do my emotions or gut feelings tell me once I’m out of the office?