Example of essay on discussions on cultural studies

How are scholars able to find out how early people with no written records lived?

Scholars are able to determine how the early people lived from the artifacts these people left behind. Such artifacts include; burial sites, weapons, wall paintings and also the structures they constructed. A good example is the Machu Picchu in Peru, an antique city, that archeologists use to extract information about the ancient people. Another example is the Aztec and Mayan pyramids (Spielvogel 2010).

What was prehistoric society like around the Amazon?

The pre-historic Amazonian culture was very difficult as opposed to how the archeologists had assumed it. Although the soil there was very poor to support agriculture, they still practiced farming. Due to this disadvantage, prehistoric civilizations thrived but seemed inhospitable. The European conquerors did not embrace the prosperity of these cultures because they were different from theirs (Timpson 2009).

What ensured the European domination in the New World?

There are many factors that favored the European domination in the new world. They were superior in weaponry and military as compared to the natives, who were poorly trained with inferior weapons like bows and arrows. Consequently, they used their power to colonize the native populations. Another factor was that they were technologically advanced hence they needed workers in their industries and farms (William, Duiker, Jackson and Spielvogel 2006). This made them pursue colonization to acquire slaves who would provide cheap labor. The Europeans were also immune to foreign diseases that easily overcame the natives and this made them dominate other continents.

How do you think an entire prehistoric group of people could simply disappear, such as the people around the Marajo of the Amazon?
The prehistoric group of people disappeared as a result of many aspects. During those days there were continuous raids that left many people dead as they was no civilization. Secondly, drought and famine were rampant in the regions and led to massive deaths since these people had no control measures on such calamities. Another aspect that contributed to the disappearance of these groups was the breakout of epidemics since their immunity was very low thus claimed many lives (Timpson 2009). Due to these shortcomings, these groups were assimilated by new groups.


Spielvogel J., J. (2010). Western Civilization: A Brief History. Upper Saddle River: Cengage Learning publishers.

Timpson A., M., (2009). First Nations, First Thoughts: The Impact of Indigenous Thought in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.
William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel (2006). World History, Volume 1. Upper Saddle River: Cengage Learning publishers.