In Facundo, Civilization and barbarism, 1845, the Argentine writer Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (1810-1888) presented a smart, modern comprehensive interpretive study and understanding of their nation: its land, its people, its history and its political situation (Zimmer 131). The thesis proposed Facundo broad interpretation of sociological basis, the American man. Sarmiento national social development divided into two stages, ” civilization” and ” barbarism.” The man, in his view, evolved from the simplest to the most complex. In its simplest stage the man was a being ” wild” and more complex in their stadium should reach the state of ” civilization”. The ” barbarism” was an intermediate stage of development, from which man could retreat to savagery or advancing civilization. Sarmiento, Alberdi Echeverria and his writings contributed to the study of the problems of his time Argentina and raised a program consisting of liberal development for the nation (Lutes 122).
Sarmiento records the phenomenon of gaucho and gives full value in the national culture. However, Argentina society, dynamic, historic, inevitably had to march towards a future development. Economic forces form a modern nation, similar to that populated the European continent and emerging already hard and uniqueness in the United States. While the campaign was establishing weight in national life, the future society would be an urban society. The national image of the world had more influence in shaping culture that Argentina was not the political Sarmiento disseminated through his speeches during his presidency, but the world presented in his book journalism: Facundo.
The Slaughter House autobiographical novel is written Kurt Vonnegut about the bombing of Dresden during World War II. According to the writer, the bombing of Dresden was not caused by military necessity. Most of those killed in this operation were civilians, were destroyed residential areas, killing monuments. Vonnegut is no doubt, against fascism, does not distinguish that the devastation of Dresden was a ” penalty” for the criminal offense of the Nazis. Roman was subjected to censorship in the United States; he was listed as ” dangerous” books and taken out of libraries. In the novel, pronounced anti-militarist paint, showing the impotence of man in front of the infinite and the soulless world of evil and violence, suffering and senseless victims that is the absence of any idea of free will in the face finally to the story. Stereotypes of ” real men”, ” tough guys”, ” heroes”, commonly found in books about the war in Vonnegut’s absurdly distorted and presented tough parody in the images of British prisoners and Weary, causing a wry grin. There is no division into ” us” and ” enemies” – the Germans are shown by the same ordinary people tortured, incredibly tired of war as the Americans (Facundo 337).
The novel is depicting national identity of in terms of” anti-war” in nature; it emphasizes the futility of war. The book’s title refers to the mindless crusade of children that took place centuries ago. This campaign was ridiculous and tragic for those who participated in it. That war author believes the same useless, ridiculous event, which poisons the life as a striker and defender (Zimmer 131).
On the other hand, in the Our America presents middle class civilian a little glance of the lives Chicago people. The life observances and penetrations of these boys are well outside their long time. Authors in thi book state their own narratives and the stories others around them. This depicts real difference civilization and barbarism. The books says much more about sympathy and assists reader to realize that there are still many civilians in America live life this way.
Iracema is a work seeking to create a national identity and a symbol of Brazilian nation because this nation was in of a need of society that time. Heroin is idealized, representative of the Brazilian nature and symbol of perfection. Martin is the colonizer: arouses curiosity and fascination, love and brings disgrace to Iracema (represents the destruction to the tribes). The narration in the third person leaves sometimes glimpses the first person, I (the narrator) late in his homeland (Zimmer 131).
In Iracema (1865) José de Alencar, or by reaching maturity in Indianists themes, or because there is no work that strictly speaking no commitment to a statement by the national literature, novel reaches its most well structured from the point of view of aesthetics. Iracema is the perfect specimen of poetic prose fiction of our romantic, beautiful example of nationalism and vainglorious indianista with which Alencar contributed to the construction of Brazilian literature and culture.
In the novel, there is a historical argument: the colonization of Ceará, which occurred in 1606. In it, there is the presence of historical characters: Martim Soares Moreno, the Portuguese colonizers who allied with the Indians Pitiguaras and Poti, Antonio Felipe Shrimp. Through the romance between Iracema and Martim, José de Alencar romanticized the process of colonization of Ceará, symbolically representing the process of colonization of Brazil. Iracema presents a kind of reconciliation between white and Indian, in that romanticizes the domination of a people another. Thus enters the artistic codes of European Romanticism the theme of the colonization process of the country.
Zimmer, Zac. ” Barbarism In The Muck Of The Present.” Latin American Research Review 48. 2 (2013): 131. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.
” Facundo.” Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia (1996): 337-338. Literary Reference Center Plus. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.
Lutes, Michael A. ” Our America: Life And Death On The South Side Of Chicago.” Library Journal 122. 10 (1997): 122. Business Source Complete. Web. 13 Oct. 2013.