– Research Problem, Hypothesis And Research Question
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the heart diseases which cause death among people in the United States. Cardiovascular diseases are primarily caused by diets that have high saturated fat contents e. g. cheese and fast foods, as well as food containing poisonous toxins (Robison et. al., 2014). The disease affects different structures and the general functioning of the heart. Among the structures affected include the blood vessels, the coronary artery, aorta and the heart valves. Functions of the heart that are affected are the heart rhythms, and it can also cause both heart failure and heart attack. Various researches and articles present problems that are associated with the CVD. These problems are associated with the atherosclerosis; that affects the overall circulatory system. The American Heart Association (2014) identified problems associated with CVD to develop from the affected heart functions and the associated heart valves and vessels. Thus, such problems are cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, the aorta disease, arrhythmias, heart valve disease and the heart muscle disease.
Treatment of the CVD has been identified to be expensive and rarely affordable to many people in the US. According to the CDC (2011), the cost of treating CVD was approximately $444 billion which can be translated as $1 for every $6 that the US spends on health management. These figures have been projected to triple come 2030. Coming up from approximately $172 billion in the year 2010 to about $276 billion in the year 2030 (American Heart Association, 2014; Jaff, 2013).
There are a number of causes of the CVD. Among these, lifestyle has been more peculiar with the majority of the heart patients relating their conditions to their way of life. Among the lifestyle risk factors include diet, the persons weight (BMI), the rate of exercise that one does and alcohol uptake, among others (American Heart Association, 2014). Diet as a risk factor arises from unhealthy foods that one consumes such as foods produced through inorganic farming. Such foods are suspected to promote the prevalence of CVD among millions of US citizens who continually rely on inorganic foods.
Organic foods are undoubtedly a healthier alternative to the conventionally grown foods since they are not grown with synthetic chemical fertilizers or pesticides (Nagourney, 2007). The pesticides pose a significant threat to human health since these causes cardiovascular diseases. Also, the Environmental Protection agency has identified that a number of the herbicides and fungicides are potentially carcinogenic and can, therefore, cause cancer and other heart related complications (National Cancer Institute, 2011). Examples of pesticides that might be present in foods include organ chlorines, thiocarbamates, organoarsenic compounds and organophosphates.
The Environmental Work Group and the Natural Resources defense council have also established that millions of children in America are exposed to levels of pesticides in their food that are unsafe (The George Mateljan foundation, 2014). Some of the pesticides are neurotoxins and can, therefore, cause damage to the nervous system and the brain. The neurotoxins are poisonous hence harmful for human consumption. Additionally, various researchers contend that the adolescents and children are particularly vulnerable to the cancer-causing effects of some pesticides. This is mainly because the body is highly sensitive to the impact of these chemicals especially during periods of high development and growth (Mosbergen, 2014).
A heart-healthy diet can, therefore, reduce one’s risk of getting a heart disease or stroke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established that a diet is indeed one of the significant sources of pesticide exposure (Robinson et al., 2014). Consequently, eating organic foods significantly lowers the CVD prevalence rate.
– Research Design And Methodology
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The adopted approach for the study is simply a qualitative study exploring and describing various facts on the relationship between organic foods and the cardiovascular disease. Qualitative approach was adopted for various reasons. Among other things, the benefits of qualitative research are numerous. Qualitative research allows an in-depth examination of the phenomena and also explores new areas of research. Thus, qualitative research examines complex questions that can be otherwise impossible when using quantitative methods. The research is descriptive and explanatory since it explicitly outlines the causes of the Cardiovascular Disease and its preventive measures.
In addition, within the qualitative design, the study methods used include: ethnography and content analysis. The benefits of the two study designs used are numerous. First, the use of ethnography enables the researcher to observe people’s lifestyles and eating habits. Additionally, the content analysis allows the researcher to review various literatures concerning Cardiovascular Diseases. For example; content analysis reveals that the cost of treating CVD is expected to increase from approximately $172 billion in the year 2010 to about $276 billion in the year 2030. Consequently, the study indeed reveals that eating organic foods significantly lowers the CVD prevalence rate hence enabling people to act prudently.
Population and Sample
The population studied encompassed persons in the United States between the ages of 23- 50 years. The sampling plan entailed random sampling. Random sampling is free from any potential biases, and it is an easy exercise. Patients from various hospitals were selected at random so as to obtain information on their past lifestyles. In this case, the patients were interviewed. The sample population involved gender-mix hence both the male and female were investigated.
In addition, questionnaires were issued to obtain feedback on various issues related to the Cardiovascular Disease. Structured interviews and open-ended questions were incorporated while undertaking research. Questionnaires are convenient because it allows the researcher to collect vital information from many people within a short period. Additionally, the study also contains both the dependent and independent variables. Examples of the independent variables include the patient’s lifestyles, alcohol uptake, and diet. Conversely, the dependent variables include various Cardiovascular Diseases such as the aorta disease, arrhythmias, heart valve disease and the heart muscle disease. The independent variables influence the dependent variables thus improper diet, and excessive alcohol intake can cause the dependent variables.
The instrumentation stage adopted the following questions that were asked from the study participants:
1. What is your past lifestyle concerning the organic foods consumption?
2. Do you believe that diet play a part in the development of the cardiovascular disease?
3. How much dose cardiovascular disease costs the patients?
The instrument that was adopted for data collection was the use of open-ended questionnaires sent to the randomly stapled study participants. In addition, the instrument adopted the listed questions alongside other questions. The instrument will be distributed through email and in the form of hard copies. This will be preceded by an email or phone call requesting the participation of the study members. Once they accept to take part in the study, the questionnaires will be sent to them. After one week, the participants will be telephoned and reminded of the study they accepted to take part and the importance of their feedback. The feedback will be collected in the second week after the instrument’s distribution.
– Annotated Bibliography
” Organic Foods: Are They Better?.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 90. 3 (1990): 367. MEDLINE. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
Burros, Marian. ” Is Organic Food Provably Better?.” New York Times 16 July 2003: F1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
This article primarily focuses on the heated debate of whether the conventionally produced food materials are better than organic food materials. The reports and research findings scrutinized and retrieved from accredited organizations made apparent the fact that the level of nutrients is higher in organically produced crops compared to their complimentary goods, conventionally produced.
Crandall, Philip G., et al. ” Estimating the Demand for Organic Foods by Consumers at Farmers’ Markets in Northwest Arkansas.” Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 11. 3 (2010): 185-208. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
The aforementioned article seeks to establish the interest of buyers towards organic foods. The results retrieved subsequently to the research that was done prior to writing this article made apparent the fact that the majority of the farm buyers opt for organic foods materials compared to nonorganic food materials. It was also noted from the research that the majority of those who buy organic food materials have been doing this for more than seven years.
Melchett, Peter. ” Spin Hides The Truth About The Value Of Organic Food.” Farmers Weekly 151. 7 (2009): 25. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
Throughout this article, the author presents his perceptions regarding the report that was compiled by Foods Standard Agency (FSA) of Great Britain. The report presented claimed that organic food materials have fewer amounts of nutrients as compared to the nonorganic food materials. Based on the author’s perceptions, the report is unreasonably biased against the organic foods a fact that makes this report dubious. The author contends with the notion that FSA and other business organizations ignore the efforts of farmers to produce nutritious foods.
NASPETTI, SIMONA, and RAFFAELE ZANOLI. ” Organic Food Quality and Safety Perception throughout Europe.” Journal Of Food Products Marketing 15. 3 (2009): 249-266. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
With a particular focus Europe, the research findings retrieved from the research findings indicated that people have limited amount of knowledge regarding ways in which organic food materials can be produced and processed. Additionally, it is evident that people have little knowledge about the characteristics that are deemed fundamental for the consumer regarding safety and quality. The main purpose of this article was to establish ways in which safety and quality can be embraced by consumers in regards to their eating habits.
Ozersky, Josh. ” Farm vs. Supermarket.” Time 176. 9 (2010): 43-45. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
The article above, present discussions that recount on the food tasting tests that involved New York City chefs who were asked to give their preferences regarding organic and non-organic foods. This test was meant to establish the nutritious value of food sold in the supermarket over those sold directly from the farm. Considering that chefs are professionals who are well acquitted with matters of nutrition, an outstanding majority of these chefs established the organic food materials particularly those retrieved directly from the farm to be more nutritious. Compared to the majority of the supermarket food materials
Shan, Yaso. ” Going Organic – Is It Nutritionally Better?.” Primary Health Care 16. 3 (2006): 37-40. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
This article presents the nutritional values attached to organic food materials. In the modern day, there is an increased demand of organic food materials over non-organic foods, fact that is attributed to the notion that these foods are grown with no chemical additives that may be harmful in the long run on the consumer. Though there exists minimal clinical evidence supporting the notion that organic food materials are nutritionally better, the nutritional value of organic materials is fostered by the fact that it is chemical free.
Williamson, C. S. ” Is Organic Food Better For Our Health?.” Nutrition Bulletin 32. 2 (2007): 104-108. Academic Search Premier. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
This article in essence focuses on the growing popularity of the organic food materials in the most parts of Great Britain. Based on the author’s notions, consumers are predisposed to consuming organic food materials subsequent to their particular concerns on pesticide use, and the safety and quality of foods. In addition, the author establishes that the majority of the consumers in Great Britain perceive organic food to be healthier compared to the conventionally produced food materials. This article also presents what the word nutritious means and the difference between organic and non-organic foods.
American Heart Association (2014). What is Cardiovascular Disease? Retrieved from < http://www. heart. org/HEARTORG/Caregiver/Resources/WhatisCardiovascularDisease/What-is-Cardiovascular-Disease_UCM_301852_Article. jsp
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2011). Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention. Retrieved from < http://www. cdc. gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/dhdsp. htm
Jaff, M. (2013, February 01). The Economics of Cardiovascular Disease. Heart Center News Retrieved from
Nagourney, E. (2007, July 18). Organic Foods May help against Heart Diseases. The New York Times. Retrieved from