Girls education

————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- (i) ————————————————- AN INVESTIGATION INTO FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO LOW INTAKE IN HIGHER INSTITUTION OF LEARNING AND HIGH DROPOUT OF FEMALE STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF NAROK UNIVERSITY COLLEGE) ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS. ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- (ii) ————————————————- DECLARATION This project is our original work and has not been presented for any of the study programs in any other institution. STUDENTS NAMES REG. NO. SIGNATURE JUMA GRIVINES SB02/0089/2009 WAINAINA KELVIN SB02/0267/2009 KOBIA MERCY K. EB02/0102/2009 NYANGANO A. LYNDER EB02/0113/2009 M’MWAMBIA REGINA K. EB02/0103/2009 KIRUNGU CAROLINE M. EB02/0101/2009 CHEPKIRUI MILICENT EB01/0085/2009 KORIR SHEILAH EB02/0521/2009 NJUNGE DORCAS EB02/0112/2009 NJOROGE ROSE W. EB02/0078/2009 This project has been submitted for examination with my approval as the university supervisor. DR. KHAMADI (iii) DEDICATION This project is dedicated to our parents who have enhanced our stay in Narok and to the entire Narok University College community for the cooperation and willingness to respond to our quest. (iv) TABLE OF CONTENTS Title of project………………………………………………………………………….(i ) Declaration…………………………………………………………………………… ( ii) Dedication ………………………………………………..………………………. ( iii ) Table of contents………………………………………………………………………. ( iv ) Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………………. (vi ) Abstract…………………………………………………………………..………………. (vii) CHAPTER ONE 1. 0 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………. 1 1. 1 Background to the study…………………………………………………….. 1 1. 2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………………. 2 1. 3 Purpose and objective of the study………………………………………….. 3 1. 4 Research questions………………………………………………………….. 3 1. 5 Assumptions………………………………………………………………….. 3 1. 6 Limitation of the study……………………………………………………….. 3 1. 7 Significance of the study…………………………………………………….. 3 1. 8 Definition of terms ………………………………………………4 1. 9 Outline of the study ………………………………………………………. 4 CHAPTER TWO 1. 10 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1. 11 Introduction 6 1. 12 Literature review related to problem context 6 1. 13 Literature related to methodology . 8 1. 14 Conclusion………………………………………………………………. 8 (v) CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3. 0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 10 3. 1 Design of the study 10 3. 2 Sample selections and sampling strategies 10 3. 3 Research instruments 11 3. 4 Data collection strategies 12 3. 5 Data analysis 12 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4. 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………13 4. 2 Data presentation and analysis……………………………………..………… 13 CHAPTER FIVE 1. 0 SUMMARY, INTERPRETATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. 1 Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 22 1. 2 Summary…………………………………………………………………….. 22 1. 3 Interpretation 22 1. 4 Recommendations …………………………………………………. 24 BIBLIOGRAPHY 26 APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………………. 27 (vi) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Our sincere gratitude goes to Doctor Khamadi for support and advice he offered to us during the whole process of our research project. Special thanks also go to our fellow students for participating patiently in our project during interviews and questionnaires, the subordinate staff who participated and the communication lecturers for responding positively to our quest for participation Special attribute to those who typed this project within the shortest time possible and accurately. (vii) ABSTRACT. The study was an investigation into factors contributing to low intake and high dropout rate of female students in institutions of higher learning The research was carried out through interview of students and subordinate staff as parents and filling in questionnaire by students especially female students The sample comprised of 10 students selected randomly from each school, 10 students who are parents and 10 subordinate staff. Each group consisted of 5 males and 5 females. The main tool for data collection was the questionnaire constructed and administered by the researcher to students. Results were analyzed and expressed in percentage and descriptions. The findings of the study indicated that the low intake and dropping out of females students from Narok University College is mainly influenced by school girl low performance at secondary level, and on joining these institutions we have cases of pregnancies, early marriages, poor parental motivation and home environment, social cultural attitude and various values attached to female education, peer group influence and low attainment level. It was recommended that measures should be taken by the government and institutions to curb the problem of low intake and drop outs by counseling the girls, making school affordable and providing scholarship and bursaries to those in need, enacting supportive legislation and putting in place mechanism to prevent early marriage and child bearing, facilitation of the entry of drop-outs into education system and massive gender sensitization programmes on the benefits of female education. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background to the study In recognition of the benefits of education to the development of the nation, international declarations in the 1990s continue to urge Governments to provide basic education for all their citizens. As a result the government of Kenya has established many programs to minimize the number of illiterates. For example, there is free primary education, secondary education, mobile schools for nomadic communities, IDP schools and refugee schools in refugee camps and constituency development fund (C. D. F) which offer bursaries to the needy students. Despite all this there is low intake in institutions of higher learning and high dropout rate especially for the female students due to various reasons for example unplanned pregnancies, early marriages, poverty, cultural beliefs , to mention but a few. To sum up this issue should be addressed for the government to meet its target of minimizing illiteracy level and consequently achieving vision 2o3o. Despite being signatories, African Governments are yet to achieve the objectives set out in these declarations. One persisting constraint to the attainment of the goal of education for all is high drop out of girls from the education system leading to low intake in the higher institutions of learning Currently, it is feared that owing to high population and economic stagnation, the number might rise by the year 2030. Many African Countries report increased cases of low intake and dropout rate by female students in comparison to the male counterparts. The government of Kenya lays a lot of emphasis on education of the girl child such that it spends a lot on her education. Statistics on education expenditure in this country indicate that public expenditure on education has now reached 25 per cent of the overall Gross national Product (GNP), a level that the government feels can no longer be sustained. The ministry of education takes the biggest share compared to others. This shows that the Government values education and views it as a mean through which productivity and self sufficiency can be attained. 2 The Government ensures that all children join educational process, making the enrolment to Schools at initial stages of both Primary and Secondary enormous. Despite all the Government effort, many students end up leaving School prematurely as drop outs, especially girls. Such a situation is very costly to the Nation’s economy for it contributes to wastage and low intake in the institutions of higher learning. In Kenya lower per cent of girls as compared to percentage of boys attend Secondary School. Out of students who drop out of School every year, a high percentage is that of girls. Statistics also shows that, out of girls who enter form one, only few sit for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary education leading to low intake at the institutions of higher learning. This is an alarming situation given that the Government invests heavily on education. 1. 2 Statement of the problem The research problem addressed in this study is that the crucial factors contributing to low intake and high drop-out rate of girls are poorly understood. To date, most policy response to the problem of female drop-out and intake have been based on inadequate understanding of the issue. Policy formulation and implementation have adopted either deterministic or traditional pedagogic exhortative frameworks to explain the phenomenon, tending to blame the ” Victims” whether implicit or explicitly these are not effective solutions because the problem is still rampant in Schools. Case study Narok University College, an average population of 619 students joined first year (2009/2010), 250 are female of which10 are pregnant before the completion of the second semester, 7 are abortive cases, girls are notorious about relationships with grown men who are so capable of manipulating their thinking capacity and those not yet in relationships are on a random search. This implies that out of 250 girls on average who joins the university college, only a quarter of the girls finish the 4 year course with a grade to reckon with. This is only 40 percent of those who enrolled in first year who are then capable of proceeding to master level. In the foregoing disclosure, it is clear that dropping out of girls from Secondary Schools is a serious problem to this low number. 3 1. 3 Purpose and objective of the study Effective solution to the problem to female low intake and drop-out depend first on an emphatic understanding of the situation; second on the recognition of the interrelatedness of the underlying factors and consequences; and third, in the adoption of holistic intervention strategies. Therefore, the major aim of the study was to find out the factors that cause low intake and many girls to drop out of School and translate the findings into a form that could be utilized by the stakeholder preferably lecturers, parents and community leaders to unfold where the problem abound. The specific objective was:- To investigate the causes of low intake and drop out from institutions among girls. 1. 4 Research questions The study sought to answer the following questions: Which are the major factors that contribute to low intake and high dropout rate of girls at Narok University College? 1. 5 Assumptions The study assumed that the respondents were cooperative and gave honest and factual information. Also, the views of the sample population that participated in the research were assumed to represent the views of the whole population from which the sample population was selected. 1. 6 Limitation of the study. Apart from carrying out the research, the researchers were performing their duties as students and working on their Program me. Further, the researchers sponsored the study. There was also the problem of time; the project should be done for a whole semester but was done on a three week ultimatum. Therefore due to this time and financial constraints, it was not possible to involve the whole population targeted in the research. The study also did not examine exhaustively all the factors leading major ones. Despite all the limitations, the study significantly offered an attempt to solve the problem. 4 1. 8 Definition of terms The terms used in the study were defined in the manner below: Dropping out: Refers to a situation where students opt out of School before completing a full course. Drop out: A student leaving School and not re-enrolling in that or any other School before he/she has completed a full course. Dropout rate: This refers to percentage of students who left school prematurely against those who had initially enrolled. Wastage: Cases of dropping out and underachievement in academic pursuits. Higher Institution of learning: Refer to formal education system attended after completing 4 years of secondary cycle. This cycle lasts for 4 years. K. C. S. E: An examination done in Kenya to mark the end of Secondary School 1. 9 Outline of the study The study is arranged into five chapters. Chapter 1: Introduction. It covers background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose and objective of the study, limitation of the study, significance of the study, definition of central terms and outline of the study. 5 Chapter 2: Review of related literature This Chapter covers introduction to the Chapter, Literature review related to problem context, Literature related to methodology and conclusion. Chapter 3: Methodology It starts with introduction to the chapter, then design of the study, sample selection and sampling strategies, research instruments used and their development, data collection strategies and data analysis methodology. Chapter 4: Results and Discussion This chapter contains introduction and data presentation and analysis. Chapter 5: Summary, Interpretation and Recommendation. It contains introduction to the chapter, interpretation of the results and recommendations. 6 CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. 1 Introduction Various problems have faced educationist, scholars and policy makers. These among others have prompted researchers to investigate the problems. Notably, a lot of work has been done by different researchers on the subject of low intake in secondary School and institutions of higher learning within and outside this country, though no study to investigate the problem has ever been done at Narok University College. The major area discussed in this section is the literature review related to problem context and methodology. 2. 2 Literature review related to problem context The problem of girls’ low intake and dropping out from schools has been greatly investigated by Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) especially those concerned with gender sensitivity. At forefront has been Forum for African Women Educationist (FAWE) whose general assembly has highlighted on the issue. ” More than 26 million African girls, most of them living in rural areas and urban Slums are out of school, either they had failed hence couldn’t proceed, had never enrolled or having dropped due to cultural prejudices, pregnancy and poverty.” Cultural prejudices place a lot of premium on boys’ education insensibly because they will be heads of home and breadwinners”. Though the high cost of schooling affects the education of both genders, girls from poor household are doubly disadvantaged. There is ample research evidence suggesting that in times of economic difficulties, parents opt to withdraw their daughters from school because of several reasons. One of them is the mistaken view that educating boys is more crucial given their ultimate role as family heads and breadwinners. Second, is the internalization of the myth that boys are more intelligent than girls and thirdly the belief that girls are less success-oriented than boys. 7 Factors leading to drop out are as follows: 1. Household social economic status and constraints, 2. Social cultural attitudes and values, Delineation of of labour at the household level, which in the African context overburdens the girl child. 3. Early marriage, 4. Teenage pregnancies, 5. Irrelevant and inappropriate organization of the curriculum. 6. Limitation of number of places available for girl as compared to hoys. Most of the problems listed above are very common in Kenya and specifically at Narok University College which is an institution within the Maasai community. In our research, female students of Narok University College listed the following factors leading to low intake and drop out of girls from the school. Pregnancy, cost of Schooling, low performance at high school level, the opportunity cost, family poverty, irrelevant curriculum, insecurity and structural activities, classroom culture. In Kenya girls who become pregnant withdraws from School because of the stigma and negative attitude in class. A rational assessment of the situation clearly demonstrates that it is the societal responses to pregnancy rather than the pregnancy that push girls out of School and hamper their opportunities for educational and career development. On the other hand lecturers are not able to link curriculum with the real life of girls who thus views the curriculum as irrelevant to them. Girls are discriminated in the labour market, hence lack of the zeal to work hard therefore they cannot learn effectively. This leads to underachievement and they might end up dropping out of school. A number of factors relate to the problem of low intake and drop out and which are quite relevant to this study. We noted that some of the causes of low intake and drop out are social economic background of the students, pedagogical conditions, structural problems and age. 8 The Nation’s Education Editor highlights the economic factor by stating: The cost of education is getting out of hand as epitomized by declining enrolment rates at all levels The government however is trying its best to see to the increase in numbers of the female students in the institutions of higher learning . The ministry of education directly attribute this to economic progress in the present regime which has caused reform programmes in the education sector. 40 per cent of the drop out comes from the lowest quartile of intelligence Quotient scores. Such girls obtain very low grades in the national examination done in their respective schools. They feel they are wasting time, hence they drop out. These are girls from low performance schools where there is no drive to achieve and probably from families of the same wave length, this is what leads to low enrollment at colleges and universities. Research jointly undertaken by the ministry of education and the US-based population council reveals that the communities in Kenya grossly undermine girls as students. It reported that most believe that girls are less capable of learning referring to them as ” stupid” and ” lazy”. But P. L. O Lumumba challenges that, ‘ We adore women as our mothers, protective of them as our sisters and daughters and love them as our wives but still despise them as women, I don’t understand the irony of this’ 2. 3 literatures related to methodology Causes of girls’ low intake and dropout of school have been unveiled by many researchers using various methodologies . e. g. through questionnaires, interviews and observation. The best researchers here are teachers, lecturers and students because they work in the school environment. 2. 4 Conclusion From the above given facts it has been established that various factors that contribute to girls’ low intake and drop out of school are: * Social economic factors, * Pregnancies, * Early marriages, * Peer pressure, * Social culture attitude and various values attached to female education, 9 * Irrelevant and inappropriate organisation of curriculum, * Pedagogical conditions, * Belief that they’ll lack employment after school, * Poor administration, * Cost of schooling, * Intelligent Quotient, * Low academic achievement, * Structural problems, * Classroom culture. The extent to which the same factors cause low enrollment and dropout of girls at Narok University College was determined in the study. The study and methods from the reviewed literature proved handy especially to the methodology that directed the study. Similar methods of data collection and analysis were employed to get vital information. 10 CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Introduction In this section the researchers attempt to describe the techniques that were used in the study. Specifically the section establishes methods of sampling, the research instruments used to gather the data, data collection procedure and how it was analyzed. 3. 2 Design of the study The design of the study was a case study for Narok University College. 3. 3 Sample selections and sampling strategies Narok University College is a newly established constituent college of Moi University with seven schools so far. All the seven schools were involved in the research and random sampling method was used to pick 10 students from each school, from a total of 619 students consisting of J. A. B, diploma and self-sponsored program me students, the dean, deans of the seven schools and 10 subordinate staffs who are students giving a total of 87. It’s the first year and out of the population, 250 are girls and the rest boys, out of the 250, 10 girls are already pregnant, 3 of them went home and are not yet back and some are abortive cases, 17 are wives back at home with husbands to look after and six are already mothers to school aged children who need care . Few of them were selected randomly for the purpose of the research study but not all for the fear of victimization. The study also randomly selected 10 subordinate staff who are also students comprising of 5 males and 5 females from Narok University College. No names of the interviewees and no direct answers were included in this document for privacy reasons. The researchers analyzed the data and presented it in synthesized form. 11 3. 4 Research instruments To obtain the required information the researchers used 3 main instruments: 1. The questionnaire which was filled by students in School. 2. Interview for the selected students. 2 Observation of the school environment. 3. 5 Questionnaire The questionnaire for students got information about their age, class, academic performance, their social economic background and their views regarding the factors contributing to the low intake and high dropout rate of girls from the school because so far no male student is out of school due to various reasons. The second questionnaire to girls who are either married, pregnant or with children sought information on their children’s age, the social economic background of their spouses, and rate at which they go home, reasons why they go, whether they rejoice in this and how it affects their learning. 3. 6 Interviews The first interview schedule was for both male and female students. It had structured questions seeking information of their social economic status, age, how they encourage each other to learn and reasons why they are in school. The second interview schedule was for the dean of students and solicited information on experience in his job, low intake and rate of dropping out in the last year and nature of the school’s problem of girls was obtained The third interview schedule was for Deans of the various schools to clarify information obtained from students. The interview also sought view of the deans regarding the factors that leads to low intake in particular schools e. g. at Narok University College we have only a single girl taking computer science. To supplement the questionnaire and interview schedules in data collection, the researchers observed the school environment. 12 3. 5 Data collection strategies The questionnaire was administered to students in their hostels under supervision of the researchers and data was collected immediately the students completed filling it. For the officers, only those found were interviewed in their offices. 3. 6 Data analysis The data collected was analyzed in form of raw numbers and percentages. Information from the questionnaire and interviews was represented in descriptive form. 13 CHAPTER FOUR 4. 0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. 0 Introduction In this chapter, the researchers have systematically analyzed, observed and discussed their data. * * 1. 1 Data presentation and analysis Table 1: Students Population in School in 2009/2010 academic year | FIRST SEMESTER | SECOND SEMESTER | Girls | 250 | 242 | Boys | 369 | 369 | The research revealed that female students are vulnerable to reasons leading to low intake in institutions of higher learning and it’s these same reasons that lead to subsequent drop out at these institutions. Out of 8 drop outs who were involved in the research, 5 dropped out of School in the first semester of the first year due to unplanned pregnancies that led to victimization from the other students, demoralization after realizing that they couldn’t perform in their various fields, parental responsibility and spouses’ ideas that they should use the fee money on some other project other than education. This is as a result of students relying heavily on misinformation on sexual matters from their peers. The results from the table indicate that 8 girls dropped out of school in the second semester from Narok University College and two are already pregnant but in school. However their male counterparts had no cases of dropouts. 14 TABLE 2: Difference in level of aspirations between male students and female students. Level of aspiration | MALE | FEMALE | | Number | Percentage | Number | Percentage | Just some Diploma course. | 2 | 5. 714 | 7 | 20 | Just to finish First Degree Education | 5 | 14. 29 | 16 | 45. 71 | To attain master degree level | 18 | 51. 43 | 10 | 28. 57 | To attain PhD education. | 9 | 25. 71 | 2 | 5. 714 | The table indicates that majority of female students only aim at attaining their first degree and nothing more, they have no aim of continuing with their education after that level, those aiming for a master degree are few and those going for a PhD are even fewer. Poor motivation at home and at school results to girls having negative attitude toward schooling. This leads to low intake and later drop out from school. The research revealed that out of 17 parents interviewed, only 8 monitor their children’ performance. Table 3: Difference in family income Monthly income | FEMALE | MALES | | Number | Percentage | Number | Percentage | Low | 29 | 82. 86 | 14 | 40 | High | 6 | 17. 14 | 21 | 60 | 15 The table in page 14 shows that 82. 86% of those who do not have a smooth school life are from poor backgrounds and in such cases the girl child is most affected due to her higher demands and in cases where a choice has to be made, parents will prefer educating boys since they are seen as bread winners in their future families, moreover, girls will be married off at some point in life and will be provided for by their husbands; and why educate someone who will be of benefit to some other people? The relatively high cost of schooling is a crucial variable in the withdrawal of students from school. Though the high cost of schooling affects the education of both genders, girls from poor household are doubly disadvantaged. Given parental perception of female role, girls are generally expected to continue performing some of their traditionally designated roles even as they attend school. For many poor families, girls labour is not only a cultural demand, but in most cases it may be absolutely imperative for family survival. Moreover, the school curriculum is rarely relevant to the needs of girls and their families. Rigid timetabling and teaching methodologies make it difficult for girls to meet other demands of life for example pregnancy hence may have to withdraw temporarily from school due to the reasons outlined above, to catch up with their peers once they return to school. Their academic performance is impaired eventually leading to dropping out of school. Poor parents are unable to supply books and other school materials for their children and this affect their academic performance. The poor performance culminates into low achievement hence inability to proceed to higher levels of education. Students from well to do families afford good schools while those from poor families at times are forced to make do with the low performing schools school when their parents are unable to supply. 16 TABLE 4: Difference in Parents’ level of education between the low achievers and the high achievers. Parents level of education | Low Achievers | High Achievers | | Number | Percentage | Number | Percentage | No formal education | 4 | 5. 714 | 2 | 2. 857 | Primary education | 8 | 11. 43 | 4 | 5. 714 | Secondary education | 16 | 22. 86 | 8 | 11. 43 | Above secondary education | 12 | 17. 14 | 16 | 22. 86 | The data in the table above shows that there is a relationship between a child’s achievement and parental level of education. Illiterate parents don’t motivate their children to work and if the children do work hard, it’s due to motivation from other quarters and not parents. Most of these parents would rather spend their money on something else that they know its benefit than on education that they don’t know what it entails and what its benefits are. And in any case they decide to take a child to school, they will prefer taking the male ones and marry off the females to aid in paying the school fees, to them, girls are assets on which profits must be earned. This leads to less motivated students hence little achievement. Girls won’t be provided for when it comes to basic needs and they will end up getting them from other quarters leading to early marriages, pregnancies and drop outs. The study also noted that of girls to some extent they don’t performance due to peer groups’ influence. They tend to succumb more easily to mob psychology as compared to their male counterparts and this “ I did so because so and so did the same” attitude has lead to sexual relationships, pregnancies, drug addiction and attendance of clubs. 17 TABLE 5: Causes of low intake and reasons for dropping out as given by the Dean of students Reason | | Percentage | Economic factors | | 20 | Low attainment level | | 8. 33 | Poor parental motivation and home environment | | 15. 83 | Pregnancies | | 21. 77 | Social cultural attitude and various values attached to female education | | 10. 83 | Indiscipline | | 4. 17 | Pedagogical conditions | | 2. 5 | Early marriages | | 14. 17 | Illness | | 2. 5 | The major factors according to the Dean are, pregnancies, early marriages, cultural attitude and economic factors. Most female students get pregnant without their knowledge and engage in sexual activities due to various reasons. One reason is to be at par with their peers. They do so without the knowledge that their counterparts are not doing so for the first time and are abreast with preventive measures. They end up getting caught up as the others continue with their studies. The second reason is the pressure to keep a boyfriend who believes he can only stick around if she is ready to give in to sex. 18 The problem is, the boys are just as ignorant as they are, and as for the men who are advanced brain wise, they do so to prevent the girls from eloping with other men. They drop out in order to look after their children and some never resume their education. We have cases of early marriages. The girls in question have to go home every now and then in order to keep their husbands. This leads to cases of divided attention. Some of them have mind boggling spouses who watch their every move and spy on them and even dictate the kind of friends to have, that means any male friend should stay at bay for the sake of sanity in that marriage. Some even suggest that their spouses to drop out of school. This occurs with men who feel inferior being married to a woman who is a better achiever than him. The girls end up living the men’s lives and not theirs leading to a stressful life. The end product is low performance and even dropout. On cultural attitude, Narok University College is within the Maasai community. The researchers observed them, they could not be interviewed or given questionnaires because they are very temperamental people who hate prejudice and are capable of anything. For them, only the most useless boys are sent to school as the useful ones are sent to look after the cattle. The girls are married off. The cause of these divergent views can be explained by the students’ unwillingness to reveal sensitive data about their families and the administration’s inability to get to the root cause. 19 The table below show the reasons for low intake and withdrawing of girls from school in order of most frequent to least frequent as given by drop outs. Most of them gave more than one reason Table 6: Frequency Reason | | Percentage | Pregnancy | | 22. 92 | Inability to pay school fees | | 18. 75 | Early marriage | | 12. 50 | Problems at home | | 12. 50 | Peer influence | | 12. 50 | Cultural attitude | | 10. 42 | Lack of employment after school | | 6. 25 | Parental duties | | 4. 17 | 20 From the data collected from the respondent, the major causes are: 1. 0 School girl pregnancy, 1. 1 Early marriages, 1. 2 Low social economic status of the families, 1. 3 Poor parental motivation and home environment, 1. 4 Social cultural attitude and various values attached to female education, 1. 5 Peer influence, 1. 6 Parental duties Table 7: Frequency of reasons for low intake as given by Deans of the various schools Reason | | Percentage | Irrelevant and inappropriate arrangement of curriculum | | 3. 92 | Indiscipline | | 5. 88 | Economic factors | | 13. 73 | Low attainment level | | 9. 80 | School structural and physical conditions | | 3. 92 | Poor parental motivation and home environment | | 15. 69 | Pregnancies | | 15. 69 | Early marriages | | 1 1. 76 | Social cultural attitudes and various values attached to female Education | | 15. 69 | Poor administration | | 3. 92 | 21 Culture has it that certain courses are a preserve for men e. g. computer, mathematics and science related courses leading to low intake of girls here and there is also this assumption that languages and art subjects are a preserve for girls. These courses do not allow time for other businesses such as marriage and parental life. Girls involved find it so tasking to juggle between the two. In case of pregnancy, catching up with other students is a losing battle. These courses need a very high cut off points that the low attainment level of the girls cannot meet These courses also need self discipline, denial and self abnegation that most girls are incapable of. They are also very expensive to afford. 22 CHAPTER FIVE 5. 0 SUMMARY, INTERPRETATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 1 Introduction This Chapter deals with the summary, interpretation and recommendations of the study. 5. 2 Summary The objective of the study was to investigate the factors contributing to low intake and high dropout rate of girls as compared to boys from the institutions of higher learning. The data obtained from the respondents sought to give answer to the following question: – Which are the major factors that contribute to high low intake rate of girls at Narok University College? -Which are the major factors that contribute to high drop out of girls at Narok University College? . The data collected was analyzed using simple percentages. The most frequent reasons as given by respondents were termed as the major reason for girls’ low intake and high drop out from Narok University College. The major factors were pregnancy, early marriages, low social economic status of the families, poor parental motivation and home environment, social cultural attitude and various values attached to female education, peer influences and low attainment level 5. 3 Interpretating Conclusion Failure to arrest the high attrition of children especially girls, from the education system exacts an immense development cost for all parties concerned. The cost of low intake of girls and subsequent dropout can be fully appreciated when weighed against the benefits that the girl child, society and nation, derive from access to even a few years of education. It is said that a society that does not embark on girl child education is a society a drift, a giant headed for the rocks. For Kenya to be great, we have to be great, and to be great we have to educate our girls and encourage them to achieve since it’s said that by educating a girl you are educating a nation but by 23 educating a man you are only educating an individual. This will help eradicate perpetual dependence on men. For females, the cost is enormous in quantitative and qualitative terms. It results in wastage of scarce financial and material resources and has negative social and psychological consequences. By dropping out, girls remain entrapped in a vicious cycle of deprivation and poverty. They lose out on the transformative and liberation aspects of education that would otherwise have made a significant difference in their lives. The research revealed that there is a close relationship between the occurrence of school girl pregnancy and the incidence of female low attainment level and dropout. In Narok University College girls are cut short by unwanted pregnancies. In absence of self withdrawal, the school pregnancy policies ensure that pregnant girls are expelled from the hostels with little or no chances of re-entry after delivery. They have to face the harsh life living out of the school compound by paying bills and rent and fending for the child. Notions of the incomparability of schooling and reproduction are strongly entrenched in contemporary African societies. It is assumed that pregnancy negatively affects academic performance, and thus pregnant girls should be thrown out to avoid further wastage of scarce resources and influence of others. Labeled as failures and stigmatized, pregnant girls internalize negative self image of themselves that may lead to actual poor performance and self withdrawal by girls from school even before pregnancy becomes visible. Some girls seek marriage, or are forced to get married by their parents, as a way of legitimizing the pregnancies and childbirth. Other girls seek marriage as an escape from family poverty, and mistakenly believe that pregnancy will help them ” hook” husbands. Unfortunately, more often than not, premarital pregnancy does, not result in marriage; instead, girls end up ruining their school careers and life chances, becoming socially and economically dependent on men who also cannot provide. Teenage sexual activity is unintended and sporadic. More significantly, much of the sexual activity occurs in the absence of sexual information and knowledge of contraceptive use. The whole issue of sexual education in school has been extremely controversial with established religious organizations spearheading against it. Debates have raged on what the subject should be called, how it should be taught and what should be its contents. 24 Parents with low social economic status poses a great threat to girls education. Social cultural attitude and various values attached to female education affects girl education. Society perceives girls education as insignificant and values boys’ education. Therefore in times of economic difficulties, educating boys appears to be a wiser investment than educating girls. There is need for developing holistic policy and programmed strategies that will facilitate the enrolment, attainment and achievement of girls in education system. Urgent measures must be taken to avoid a potentially explosive situation where girls are sexually and economically exploited, their talents underutilized and they are bereft, of guidance and life skills. 5. 4 Recommendations 5. 4. 1 General recommendations in reducing female drop-out Education should be utilized as a major vehicle for the empowerment of women and girls. To facilitate this radical change there is need to involve lecturers, students, Non Governmental Organizations and scholars in all fields, parents and the community at large. Heads of schools must be fully committed to girls education, be deeply aware the multiple constraints facing girls, ensure that girls succeed, work closely with, and involve parents, communities and other partners, and they should create and sustain a supportive and safe learning environment. Parents and communities should encourage their daughters to develop their talents in the study of science and mathematics, guarantees free time to their daughters to study and to do homework, abandon outdated traditions and gender discrimination, treat their sons and daughters with dignity and respect and also they should guide their daughters in their career choice. There is need for policies that will make schooling more affordable for all by eliminating unnecessary expenditures and strengthening financial planning. Female persistence should be guaranteed through the provision of scholarship and bursaries. Supportive legislation should be enacted and mechanism put in place to ensure that under-age girls are not married off under the pretext of cultural conformity. Urgent measures should be taken to prevent all forms of violence against girls. Perpetrators of violence against them should be dealt with swiftly and stringently. 25 Massive gender sensation programmed on the benefits of female education, should be embarked on, targeting all cadres of educational and administrative personnel, especially at grassroots level. Community mobilization programmes are also absolutely essential. It is important for policy makers to: * Recognize the young, unmarried people are sexual beings capable of sexual activity and child bearing. * Realize a policy that minimize early marriage and its consequences on the girls education, and exploitation of their full potential * Discard the myth that the provision of sexuality and reproductive services to teenagers will increase promiscuity and pre-marital pregnancies. * There is essential need therefore to create and support youth friendly policies which will provide a climate for the promotion of youth serving programs. These include: (a) Establishment of family life education programmes for teenagers in and out of school. This should include the provision of accurate information about sexuality and the consequences of sexual activity among the youth especially girls as well as skills on how to manage girl / boy relationship. (b) Establishment of an expansion of policies and programmes that increase access to high quality and appropriate family planning and counseling services for sexually active teenagers as a mean of minimizing pregnancy, abortion, early marriage, parental care and related consequences. (c) Creation and support of policies which will discourage early childbearing, parental care on students, early marriages by enacting legislation that ban early marriage. Men should be made to assume responsibility for their own sexual behavior and its consequences. (d) The facilitation of the re-entry of drop-outs, especially females, into the education system, and provision of appropriate support services, including baby care should be done. (e) The provision of comprehensive education as well as education on sexuality, counseling in relation to the promotion of positive self images and role modeling, family planning and STD /AIDS /HIV information, post-abortal counseling, reproductive halt and income generating skills and training should also be enacted upon. (f) Addressing the issue of the availability of contraceptives to youth and enabling girls to take control over their own bodies. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bochel, H. et al, (2009), Social Policy: Themes, issues and debates: (second edition), Pearson education limited: England (page 235-258) Charles, Z. (2010). Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People:( Tenth edition), Brooks/Cole: Belmont, U. S. A (Page 418-448) Glencoe. (1976). Writers Choice: Grammar and Composition: (Texas edition) MC Graw-Hill (Page 320-358) Maxine, M. (2006). ” The chimera of success: Gender ennui and the changed international policy environment”: Journal of Feminisms in Development: Z edition books Limited: London Margaret, H. and Sharon, S. (1987), African Women: South of the Sahara: Longman Group Limited: U. S. A 27 APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR FEMALE STUDENTS Instructions: Do not write your name in this paper. Answer all questions carefully and whatever message you give will be treated with a lot of confidentiality. 1. How old are you? 2. When were you admitted in First year? 3. Any friend whose dropped out of school? 4. At what level? 5. For what reasons? 6. What was her reaction? 7. What would you have done if it were you? 8. Any pregnant, married, dead friend? 9. What really happened, were you a witness? 10. Who was paying her School Fees ? 11. How frequently did she go home ? (tick one) (a) Very frequently ( ) (b) Frequently () (c) Not at all ( ) 12. What was her performance in tests ? (a) Below average ( ) (b)Average ( ) (c) Above average ( ) 28 12. Which of the following reasons leads to withdraw from School? (Tick applicable reason) (a) Pregnancy (b) Parent’s unwillingness to educate (c) Poor teaching (d) Long distance to school (e) Poor performance (f) Illness (g) Lack of School materials (e. g. uniform, textbooks) (h) Marriage ‘ (i) Problems at home (e. g. as a result of divorced family, single parent) (j) Initiation (k) Teacher’ harshness (e. g. severe punishment) (l) Peer influence7 (m) Inappropriate school work which is not applicable in real life (n) Lack of employment after school (o) Poor school quality (p) Any other Specify; 13. Were you helping your parents in the following ways when you were through secondary school? Yes No (a) Gathering and preparing food. (b) Fetching water (c) Gathering firewood (d) Caring for younger children (e) Cultivating (f) Milking, washing and ironing clothes. (g) Business, trading, driving (h) Did you do them willingly while neglecting your studies Yes ( ) No ( ) . 14, Do you have any male friends? 15. Did you have a sexual relationship in high school? Did you like what you were doing? Yes ( ) No ( ) 29 16. How many kilometers were you walking daily from home to school? _ 17. How long were you taking to reach school? 18. Were you getting to school late? No ( ) yes() 19. How many brothers and sisters do you have in your family? (a) Brothers (b) Sisters 20. Do your parents value the education of their children? Yes ( ) No ( ) 21. If yes, what value do they place on educating (a) Boys? 1. Highly valued ( ) 2. Valued ( ) 3. Not valued ( ) 4. Not applicable ( ) (b) Girls? 5. Highly valued ( ) 6. Values ( ) 3. Not valued ( ) 4. Not applicable ( ) 23. How much money do you estimate your family makes a month? 30 24. How many girls are in your class 25. How many girls have dropped out of school since First Semester in your class? 26. Do you think those who drop out of school are better off than you? Yes ( ) No ( ) 27. Which of the following levels of education did your parents attain? a) No formal education ( ) b) Primary education ( ) c) Secondary education ( ) d) Above secondary education ( ) 28. Up to what level of education do you want to achieve? a) Just some diploma course. b) To attain a degree. c) To attain Masters Degree. d) To attain PhD. 31 APPENDIX 2A INTERVIEW FOR PARENTS (SUBORDINATE STAFF) 1. How old are you? 2. What level of education did you attain? 3. Approximately how much do you earn per month? 4. How many children do you have? 5. Do you buy books and other school materials for your children? 6. Do you monitor your children’s performance in school? 7. If you were to choose between educating a boy and a girl which one would you prefer? 8. Why would you prefer that? 9. Do you have a daughter who have dropped out of school? 10. Why did she drop? 11. Was her performance in school below average, average or above average? 12. How far is the school she was from your home? 32 APPENDIX 2B INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR THE DEAN OF STUDENT 1. For how long have you been in your present status? 2. What is the rate of female students drop out as compared to male students? 3. How many female students have dropped out of schools for the following reasons? a) Economic factors. b) Lower attainment level. c) School structure and physical conditions. d) Poor parental motivation. e) Home environment. f) Pregnancies. g) Social, cultural and various values attached to female education. h) Indiscipline. i) Poor administration. j) Irrelevant and inappropriate organization of curriculum. 4. What steps do you take for those who get pregnant? 5. Do you expel students for not paying school fees? 6. Does your University have guidance and counseling services? 33 APPENDIX 2C INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR DEAN OF VARIOUS SCHOOLS 1. State the school in which you are the Dean? 2. Upon enrolment in first semester, what was the number of female students? 3. Have you had any female student dropping out of your school? 4. If yes, how many have dropped? 5. As the Dean, what are some of the reasons or factors that force students to drop out of school?