Good essay on this test and measurement exercise involves a number of specifications. such specifications

Test and Measurement

1. Topics
Ocean and studies aiming to understand the structure of the oceans, climate of the ocean and its impact in the activities that take place in the ocean, resources from the ocean and how human beings benefit from these resources, ocean temperatures and what determines the rise and/or fall of these temperatures, animals in the ocean and their characteristics, ocean conservation and the activities that promote it, ocean pollution and the pollutants (how this should be controlled/reduced, economic activities in the ocean, composition of the ocean and ocean shores (Miller et al. 2009). By testing and assessing these topics, it becomes easy for one to have a basic background in order to understand the ocean better. It is advisable that one understands all aspects that are related to the element being discussed in order to give a conclusive analysis so as to get the relevant information.
2. Learning outcomes
They should be aware of how to analyze climatic conditions of the ocean. Climatic conditions play a major role in dictating the economic activities that take place, hence the importance of understanding and correctly predicting the patterns. This is one of the outcomes that the students are expected to understand. They should be able to give a detailed explanation on various ocean climates. This way, the students will be able to differentiate between their hypothesis and the real issues on the ground
3. Specifications

First, one should identify the ocean they are to research on and have a rough idea on what to expect. Different oceans have different layouts and structures. Generalization of ideas about the oceans is discouraged as one may not be in a position of fully understanding their target ocean. Through having preliminary overview, the learners will get a chance to have a basic understanding on what they should expect (Linn et al. 2000).
Second, students should have a timeframe within which they will carry out the research. Academic rips and studies are always guided by the duration within which one is expected to give the results. In coming up with the timeframe to be used, it is important that the students first design the procedures they expect to follow. In setting the timeframe, students are required to ensure that such time is adequate to accommodate all the activities in question while at the same time encouraging fastness. When such rules are set, it becomes possible for the students to plan on how to go through their research and other activities.
It is important to set the rules, regulations and definition of terms. In any outdoor activity, there is the risk of carrying out more research than expected. In this case, the students may end up engaging themselves in other issues that are not relevant to the topic. It is because of such reasons that they are required to have set specifications on what they ought to do and what they should achieve after the program.
Lastly, it is important to give the expected results of the activity. This should match the objectives and the learning outcomes that are to be assessed. In normal practice, an outdoor activity can only be said to have met its objectives if only it can concur with the expectations before the event. Without this, the argument will be that such an activity was a waste of time
4. Item-test
What the students will learn- the composition, surrounding and the temperatures of the ocean. Students are expected to learn more about the temperatures of the ocean. This can be tested through measuring the temperatures.
The participants should understand how to differentiate between the different organisms in the ocean. This is important in order to have a better understanding of the oceanic conditions.
Through studying the organisms, students should have better skills about the biology of these organisms. The way they are adapted to the prevailing conditions should also be understood.
Tests will also be based on the conservation mechanisms that are ideal in ensuring the oceans are maintained for future uses. The related knowledge that participants have about the ocean will be essential.
It is crucial to test and understand the negative conservation practices that may make the lives of the organisms difficult and unbearable. This can be achieved through analyzing the individual characteristics of the organisms.
It is necessary to understand how the various organisms react to the changing climatic conditions in the oceans for their survival. This should be made in comparison with what is learned in classroom.
They will also learn about the living organisms in the ocean. In so doing, they should have the capacity to classify the organisms correctly to groups they belong to.
What rules should they follow? – Students will not be allowed to interfere with the ocean in any manner. They should behave in an ethical manner. This is essential in ensuring that their behavior does not affect the behavior of the organisms in any manner. If this is not the case, it will be difficult to come up with an up to date analysis of the organisms as they will not behave in their normal way.
Why a number of related topics? – The choice of several topics related with the ocean will ensure that students exhaust the study they undertake. Outdoor activities are meant to exhaust whatever learned in class and promote better understanding.
How to evaluate what the students gained- Evaluation will be through use of classroom tests to ensure they internalize whatever they learned in the ocean.
It would be important to test the students on the application of various conservation tests. This will ensure that they will understand what is needed of them when carrying out the research.
The history of the ocean will be tested. Students need to understand the ocean formation process and the era and period when such oceans came into existence.
It will be of major importance for students to study the trends in the ocean. For instance, they can analyze various aspects such as the water density and depth and the changes that have occurred over time.
The tests will include the prediction of how the trends will shape the ocean in the future and the possible impacts this might cause in the landscape.
The number of organisms the ocean can support at a given time is also crucial to analyze. This is the only way that the ocean’s potential can be effectively analyzed in order to make better assumptions.
Every citizen that is earmarked for conservation practices has various reasons for this. Such outdoor activities play a big role in giving the participants a chance of understanding why this was the case and how the rules have been effected.
It is essential to study the challenges that the implementers of the conservation process meet in performing their duties. This is necessary for ensuring that proper mechanisms are employed when coming up with the relevant decisions.
5. Extended-response assessment tasks
The information acquired should be synthesized to give students a chance of becoming better persons in the society. The outdoor activity plays a significant role of exposing the students to the real life situation on how and where the theories they learn in class are employed. This way, they become better members in the society.
The fourth extended-response ask is to ensure that students follow all the instructions given to the when undergoing their study in analyzing the concepts and studying more about the ocean. Failure to follow instructions will most likely lead to getting wrong information from the one expected. This may lead to confusion and mistakes that may promote distortion of information. Whenever this is the case, the essence of having such a study will not be met. The results/outcomes of the studies should at least be consistent with the assumptions that were made before the study. When this is the case, then a conclusion may be achieved to the effect that the study was successful.


Linn, R., & Gronlund, N. (2000). Measurement and assessment in teaching (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N. J.: Merrill.
Miller, M., & Linn, R. (2009). Measurement and assessment in teaching (10. th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Internat.
Wilson, J. (2009). Test and measurement. Amsterdam: Newnes/Elsevier.