Cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes have been the leading causes of mortality among adults for the past few years ( Mathers, Boerma & Fat, 2009).
On cancer, the corresponding estimates for total cancer deaths in 2008 were 7. 6 million (about 21, 000 cancer deaths a day), 2. 8 million in economically developed countries and 4. 8 million in economically developing countries. By 2030, the global burden is expected to grow to 21. 4 million new cancer cases and 13. 2 million cancer deaths simply due to the growth and aging of the population (American Cancer Society, 2011).
On cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), by 2005, the total number of CVD deaths (mainly coronary heart disease, stroke, and rheumatic heart disease) had increased globally to 17. 5 million from 14. 4 million in 1990. Of these, 7. 6 million were attributed to coronary heart disease and 5. 7 million to stroke (Fuster & Kelly, 2010).
The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2. 8% in 2000 and 4. 4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 (Wild, Roglic & Green, 2004).
The above mentioned diseases are non-communicable in nature and their prevalence is highly attributable and correlated to one’s lifestyle choices and practices which include, but are not limited to, culture, diet, exercise and occupation. This paper emphasizes the significance of exercise or physical activity among adults on the occurrence and prevention of the aforesaid lifestyle diseases. Having regular physical activity is said to reduce one’s predisposition to certain types of cancer (Mctiernan, 2003), cardiovascular diseases (Braith & Stewart, 2006) and diabetes (Short et al, 2003). Thus, the promotion of healthy lifestyle through the incorporation of appropriate physical activities in an adult’s activities of daily living (ADL) is seen as essential component of nursing care.
As a nurse, implementing assessment activities such as physical assessment is significant prior to prescribing an exercise regimen to a client. I will dutifully assess the adult’s capacity to carry out a specific range of motion exercises to assess his/her readiness for a specific exercise regimen. Further, I will assess existing health conditions that may deter the client from exercising (e. g., deformities). In addition, I will also assess the client’s availability of resources (e. g. time, exercise apparatus) to carry out a specific regimen (Fuller & Schaller-Ayers, 1990).
Health education also plays a significant role in securing client’s compliance on developing a regular and healthy physical activity. I will implement cooperative learning strategies to inculcate to the client the significance of having exercise and its importance in the prevention of lifestyle diseases such as cancer, CVDs and diabetes. In planning the client’s exercise regimen, it is also advised to involve the client in setting-up goals for exercising and in scheduling the exercise and the specific activities included in it. Through this, client’ compliance will be assured. Lastly, I will develop evaluation parameters to figure out whether the co-planned regimen has improved the client’s health status or not (e. g., measurement of BMI, assessment of vital signs, physical assessment) (Kahn et al, 2002).
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