Enlightenment: American Enlightenment was all about God’s existence, human rights, need for the emergence of a republic nation, disposal of the British misrule, denial of freedom of thought and expression, and scientific progress, which saw great inventions and discoveries. Enlightenment in America was bound to a few skilled artisans, merchants and an elected group of planters.
The Great Awakening: The Great Awakening was one of the key movements of America that swept over all of the thirteen colonies of the British and brought a national identity to America. It was a revolt against the autocratic religious rule which spilled over into the colonial life of America and polarized the Americans along religious lines. The Great Awakening saw religious unity, shared goals and social cooperation.
Albany Plan of Union: It was a plan to lay the North American colonies owned by the British under a centralized government with more concentration. The representatives from the seven British North American colonies adopted the plan on July 10, 1754. The plan was the first of its kind to conceptualize the colonies as a collective unit under one government.
Benjamin Franklin: He was an author, scientist and statesman who guided America through a troublesome period of colonial politics, revolution and war. He announced thirteen virtues as the steps to perfection of human life. He favored voluntary associations and communities over government organizations and institutions. He was a seer leader in world politics and a strong counselor of religious liberty.
2. Unity of the people in understanding the Christian faith and life.
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Creation of different factions and denominations of people.
Challenging the conventional authority of the Church.
Excoriating slavery as a sin.
3. William Penn fought for the justice of ordinary English people, who were suffering from ill-treatment by their own government. Penn lent his voice to the values of Quaker. He spoke against the government that favored the wealthy classes.
4. Due to diminishing chances, older rural communities could not assimilate an additional population, which gave rise to the establishment of newer communities, such as the plantation communities, urban seaports, farms and many others. The society of the eighteenth century back-country settlements were known for their economic differences, frequent migrations and separation. The primary reason due to which the migrations took place was to obtain cheap land in the back-country settlements.