The 1951 Geneva Convention is the main international instrument of refugee law. 1 The Convention waslimited to protecting mainly European refugees in the aftermath of World War II, but another document, the 1967 Protocol, expanded the scope of the Convention as the problem of displacement spread aroundthe world.
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According to UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), the majority of refugees worldwide do not livein refugee camps. At the end of 2015, some 67% of refugees around the world lived in individual, privateaccommodations. 2 This can be partly explained by the high number of Syrian refugees rentingapartments in urban agglomerations across the Middle East. Out of the over 4 million Syrian refugees, more than 1. 1 million now live in Lebanon. 3 This is now increased to 1. 5 million, which amounts tomore than one 25% of the total population, as of February 2017.
This is by far the highest number ofrefugees per capita worldwide. 4 As the refugees do not stay in formal camps and are living in more than1700 localities across Lebanon, it is a constant challenge for them to have access to basic healthservices. Health services are very expensive in Lebanon because they are mostly privatized and mostrefugees cannot afford to pay the medical bills due to their limited financial resources.
Since 2012, alarge part of humanitarian funding from the European Commission in Lebanon is channeled via the UNRefugee Agency (UNHCR) to help provide life-saving and emergency health care for Syrian refugees inLebanon. 5 There were 280, 000 Palestinian refugees before the Syrian crisis, 32, 000 more fled fromSyria. Around 6, 000 Iraqi refugees also fled to Lebanon.
Additionally, 1-1. 5 million Lebanese are inneed of humanitarian assistance. 4 Public services and infrastructure are overburdened, exacerbating pre-existing economic and social problems. The Lebanese Crisis Response Plan exposes the officialresponse to the crisis, as developed by the Lebanese government together with the UN and NGOs. Refugees pay an average monthly rent of 189 US dollars, including people paying to keep their tent onthe land. 23% have no access to bathrooms. Less than 1% have no access to toilets, 55% used flushlatrines and 27% used improved pit latrines.
No formal Syrian refugee camps exists in Lebanon. 7 Thereare 12 pre-existing formal Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon managed by UNRWA. While theLebanese, Syrian, and Palestinian communities, as well as responsibilities for them, are to some extentseparated, 75 some Syrians nevertheless live in those camps, at least in the short term.
However, essentially no estimates of their number are known. 7PHC center’s stuff in Lebanon is facing an increased workload, especially in areas with a highconcentration of refugees. Pregnant women and children are among the most vulnerable in Lebanon. Efforts to enhance child health care and reduce morbidity and mortality among Lebanese and refugeechildren need to be sustained. 5 In august session on the revised ‘ Clinical Management Protocols for theMost Common Health Conditions in Primary Health Care’ were conducted to around 169 health careprofessionals from the Ministry of Social Affairs network and PHCs outside the MoPH network. 5 Astudy Supported by WHO was conducted to provide information about iron deficiency anemia amongwomen of childbearing age in order to tailor adequate health and nutritional interventions to the areasmost affected by the Syrian crisis(Bekka and Akkar Regions).
In August 9 th PHC centers in Akkar andBekka were chosen by the MoPH as the study sites. Data is being processed and expected to be finalizedby end of September. Preparations were undertaken for two mission in September 2016: Polio OutBreak Response review mission and food safety country profile mission.
5Ensuring health and sanitation mechanism properly in refugee camp is very important. In this matterLebanese Republic would recommend:? To giving more and more Health Camps.? To giving access to every refugee according to their need in the Health Camps.? To having proper immunizations of various infection for refugees.
? To taking proper steps to suppress Hepatitis B, Parasitic Infections, Malaria etc. deadly diseases? To building more and more Latrine and public toilets and properly maintain them. References: 1. UNHCR Global Trends 2015, p. 582.
UNHCR/Sara Hoibak-09/07/2015(blog)3. ; Lebanon Inter-agency Multi Sectoral Statistical Dashboard;. Inter-agency Coordination Lebanon.
February 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017. 4. ; Lebanon: Syria Crisis Factsheet; (PDF). ECHO. 5. ; Vulnerability Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon 2016;.
UNICEF, UNHCR, WFP. December2016. Retrieved 1 May 2017. 6. Venetia, Rainey (11 March 2015).
; Lebanon: No formal refugee camps for Syrians;. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
7. ; Lebanon Crisis Response Plan 2017–2020;. p. 67.