In the last old ages of twentieth century, a engineering was introduced to the universe that changed the people life manner around the universe. This engineering was Internet which quickly broke boundaries and made a unify universe as a planetary small town. It facilitated day-to-day activities such as shopping. Alternatively of traditional manner of traveling straight to the physical topographic points, in the new manner people stay at their places or work topographic points, and do orders online received their merchandises or services at their favourite topographic points, and pay the fees online. Internet banking is the following coevals of on-line paying. The footings of Personal computers banking, online banking, Internet banking, and nomadic banking refer to a figure of ways that consumer can entree their Bankss without being presence physically at bank subdivision by accessing to the Internet for executing minutess ( Hazel and Raphael, 2001 ) .
Increasing in the incursion rate of Internet use around the universe opens a new window on increasing in Internet banking rate. In term of Malaysia based on the Bank Negara proclamations, utilizing of Internet in order to make banking activities is increased from 67. 8 % in 2006 to 101. 9 in first one-fourth of 2009. Not merely in Malaysia as the base for this survey, but besides elsewhere penetration rate of Internet increased aggressively. Developed states with GSM ( planetary system for nomadic communications ) as a type of radio substructure have high degree of growing in credence and incursion rate of Internet banking. By looking at the Internet banking around the universe, it is clear that the European states have the highest rate of utilizing Internet banking followed by North America. In Middle East states because of turning in the international investings, most celebrated companies such as Motorola conducted their radio services.
In malice of the fact that the Internet banking has quickly growing, there are spread of utilizing this installation between developed states and developing states. Although today, this engineering is available in five continents, there are some uncertainties toward utilizing this engineering. Peoples of these states are refering about their personal information, privateness and security, and these are factors that will increase their uncertainness degree of utilizing cyberspace banking ( East African and West African states in Malaysia questioning ) . This anxiousness can mention to their cultural background. civilization can mention to the imposts and beliefs of a state that stay with people for old ages, and altering of cardinal of this civilization is non possible easy. So civilization of a state can impact the civilization of sub-societies in that state, such as organisational civilization, educational civilization and etc. accordingly, each state and state has exceptional fundamental in order to come in to the engineering universe and usage engineering as an helper in their life. Therefore the undermentioned inquiries come to mind based on the above account.
General purposes of survey:
The chief purpose of this survey is happening the function of civilization in credence a new engineering. That can be interpreted to civilization function on the Technology Acceptance Model.
Beside the chief aim this survey pursues following aims:
2. Giving the overall position of Hofstede Cultural Dimensions in different states base on their Power Distance Index, Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty turning away
3. Opening a new window for all who work in IT and IS implementing, to convey engineering in transnational and international organisations.
4. Managing the job that faced in multi-cultural society harmonizing to each individual cultural background.
The chief inquiry of this survey can be defined as below:
What is the chief consequence of Culture on TAM?
This inquiry is the base for the more inquiry in this survey. Harmonizing to the Tam dimension, above inquiry is expanded to following inquiries:
Is there any consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Usefulness ( PU ) ?
Is there any consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Ease of Use ( PEOU ) ?
Is there any consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Subjective Norm ( SN ) ?
Is there any consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Behavioral Control ( PBC ) ?
Is there any consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Behavioral Intention ( BI ) to utilize cyberspace banking?
Following portion is clear uping the chief aims of this survey.
Based on the general intent of the survey and above inquiries the aims can be explained specifically as below:
To research the consequence of the Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Usefulness ( PU ) .
To research the consequence of Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Ease of Use ( PEOU ) .
To research the consequence of Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Subjective Norm ( SN ) .
To research the consequence by Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Perceived Behavioral Control ( PBC ) .
To research the consequence degree Fahrenheit Hofstede cultural dimensions ( PDI, IND/CLV, UAI ) on Behavioral Intention ( BI ) to utilize cyberspace banking?
After clear uping the pillar of this survey, now it is clip to overview the anterior surveies related to this issue. Following portion is the literature reappraisal of this survey.
This chapter is included of backgrounds and literatures in Technology credence Model, Hofstede cultural Dimensions and old researches including of cultural function on TAM. This chapter will turn out the alone work of this survey.
Technology Acceptance Model
Technology credence theoretical account is an extension from the Reasoned Action theory by Ajzen and Fishbein. TRA was used to research the client credence of a new engineering harmonizing to two dimensions which are perceived usefulness and easiness of usage. Harmonizing to TRA, an person ‘ s behavioral purpose, which consequences in existent behavior, is influenced by individual capable norm and attitude, and the attitude is influenced by single beliefs ( Ajzen & A ; Fishbein, 1980 ) . Harmonizing to the Davis ( 1989 ) , TAM hypothesizes that behavioral purpose is a important determiner of existent system usage, and that behavioral purpose is determined by two relevant beliefs, perceived usefulness and sensed easiness of usage. In TAM, an person ‘ s rule determines the attitude toward utilizing the system. The attitude develops the purpose to utilize. Perceived utility is related to productiveness but perceived ease-of-use is related to attempt ( Venkatesh, 1999 ) . The most important consequences of Davis survey was the strong relation between Usefulness and Usage. Users of a engineering attempt to get by with troubles of a system, although trouble of usage can deter acceptance of a utile system, no sum of easiness of usage can give back for a system that does non execute a utile function. TAM used in several IS surveies and proved utile finding engineering credence, particularly to explicate computing machine usage behavior.
Technology Acceptance Model ( TAM ) has been widely used to foretell user credence and usage based on sensed utility and easiness of usage ( Davis, 1989 ) . TAM conceives that behavioral purpose is a important determiner of existent system usage, and that behavioral purpose is determined by two chief beliefs, perceived usefulness and sensed easiness of usage. The sensed usefulness refers to ” the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would heighten his/her occupation public presentation ” ( Davis 1989 ) . The sensed easiness of usage refers to ” the grade to which an person believes that utilizing a peculiar system would be free of physical and mental attempts ” ( Davis, 1989 ) . In TAM, an person ‘ s belief settees on the attitude toward utilizing the system and, in bend, the attitude develops the purpose to utilize. This purpose influences the determination of existent engineering use. With the knock of the Internet and convergence engineerings, research workers have modified TAM to show the empirical groundss of it in the convergence context. In fact, many research workers have proposed assorted drawn-out TAM. For case, Moon and Kim ( 2001 ) suggest a theoretical account where sensed gaiety was described as one of the ancestors of attitude toward Web surfing. They noted that most anterior TAM research had focused merely on extrinsic motive, non on intrinsic motive. Morris and Dillon ( 1997 ) found that TAM contributes to the anticipation of single use of package. The motivational theoretical account that was adapted by Davis, Bagozzi, Warshaw ( 1992 ) employs two cardinal concepts: extrinsic and intrinsic motive. Harmonizing to Venkatesh and Speier ( 1999 ) , extrinsic motive refers to the public presentation of an activity. Extrinsic motive is perceived to assist accomplish valued results that are distinguishable from the activity itself, such as bettering occupation public presentation, wage, etc. Intrinsic motive refers to the public presentation of an activity for no ground other than the procedure of executing it. In the instance of engineering credence surveies, perceived utility is an illustration of extrinsic motive. Davis et Al. ( 1992 ) found that perceived enjoyment was significantly related to the sensed easiness of usage. In the research on the usage purposes for information systems, Heijden ( 2004 ) adds perceived an enjoyment to TAM theoretical account.
Following portion of literature is the researching the Hofstede cultural dimensions and the significance of its index.
Hofstede cultural dimensions:
“ the corporate scheduling of the head which distinguishes the members of one group or class of people from another is defined as civilization ”
( Hofstede, 1997, p. 5 )
In 1980 Hofstede offered his celebrated description of cultural dimensions. Geert Hofstede collected his informations from the IBM employees and analyzed these informations between 1967 and 1973. It was included more than 70 states. He foremost used the 40 largest states and so extensive the survey to fifty states and three parts. From the preliminary findings, and subsequently researches, Hofstede offered his theoretical account for cultural dimensions which is contained four primary dimensions to specify in distinguishing civilizations:
First dimension was Power Distance Index ( PDI ) , 2nd was Individualism/collectivism ( IND ) , 3rd dimension was Masculinity/femininity, and eventually he offered Uncertainty Avoidance ( UAI ) . Geert Hofstede added another dimension after carry outing an extra international survey with an scrutiny instrument developed with Chinese employees and directors. Description of each Hofstede cultural dimensions is presented in following lines:
Power Distance Index ( PDI ) that is the extent to which the less powerful members of organisations and establishments ( like the household ) accept and expect that power is distributed unevenly ( Hofstede, 1980 ) . This will be a symbol of inequality. He suggests that a society ‘ s degree of inequality is approved by the followings every bit much as by the leaders. Power and inequality are highly cardinal facts of any society and anybody with some international experience will be cognizant that all societies are unequal, but some are more unequal than others.
Individualism ( IND ) is another dimension that Bolshevism is its opposite that is the grade to which persons are integrated into groups ( Hofstede, 1980 ) . On the single civilization, it was found that societies in which the ties between persons are loose, that can be meant every individual is expected to look after him/herself and his/her immediate household. In Bolshevism civilizations, he pronounced that in societies that people from get downing are integrated into strong, cohesive in groups, frequently drawn-out households ( with uncles, aunts and grandparents ) which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning trueness ( Hofstede, 1980 ) .
Masculinity/Femininity describes to what extent, societal gender functions are clearly distinguishable. Masculine societies stress on differentiated sex functions and independency. Male gender is self-asserting and focused on stuff values, while adult females are sort and believe about the quality of life. In feminine societies, overlapping gender functions and mutuality are the norm. Men and adult females are supposed to be focused on material things and concerned with quality of life. ( Hofstede, 1980 )
Uncertainty Avoidance Index ( UAI ) comes with a society ‘ s tolerance for uncertainness and ambiguity. It shows to what extent people in a society feel uncomfortable or comfy with civilization plans in unstructured state of affairss. ( Hofstede, 1980 ) . The opposite type, uncertainness accepting civilizations, are more tolerant of activities different from what they are used to ; they prefer have few regulations, and on the philosophical and spiritual degree they are relativist and let many currents to flux side by side. Peoples within these civilizations are more apathetic and thoughtful, and non expected by their environment to show emotions.
The last portion of literature is reexamining the anterior surveies which used to research Tam based on the Cultural dimensions.
Technology Acceptance in View of Cultural Dimensions
Cross-cultural research workers have traditionally used Hofstede ( 1980, 1997 ) definition of civilization that focal point on the comparing of one civilization with others. This is an etic definition of civilization. Research workers that follow an etic attack in cross-cultural consumer research by and large look for cosmopolitan or culture-free theories and constructs. They search for variables and concepts common to all civilizations that can be straight compared in order to detect how those civilizations are different from or similar to each other. This attack is typical of cross-cultural psychological science and other comparative societal scientific disciplines ( Luna ; Gupta, 2001 ) .
In 1997, Straub ; Keil and Brenner applied TAM theoretical account across three different states, the united provinces, Japan and Switzerland, their purpose of survey was analyze the cultural affected of different parts on credence a engineering such as Mobile. Straub et Al. ( 1997 ) defined Hofstede cultural dimension and their impact on engineering credence and adaptation. Uncertainty turning away, the grade to which members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainness and uncertainty, could impact engineering credence by act uponing picks of computer-based media in resistance to traditional media and cultural differences, in uncertainness turning away, specifically, could impact the manner in which persons choose media for their communicating undertakings. With regard to organisational communicating behavior, anterior research has focused specifically on uncertainness and ambiguity as chief factors in foretelling media usage. Information profusion theory ( 1984 ; 1987 ) imagines that persons choose a communicating medium by fiting the information demands of the undertaking to the information profusion of the media. Richness in a medium is a map of the interactiveness of the feedback channel, the personal quality of the beginning, and the ability of the interface to show insinuations. For undertakings high in uncertainness and uncertainty ( for illustration, dialogue and struggle declaration ) , it is thought that people will utilize rich channels, such as face-to-face communicating. For undertakings low in uncertainness and ambiguity ( for illustration, information memos and simple information exchange ) , simpler channels suffice. Electronic media such as E-mail are believed to be instead simple channels because they carry merely literally information and non the personal presence or force of the communicator. Wholly, one consequence on media pick is that civilizations in which persons tend to avoid uncertainness ( that is, high uncertainness turning away index, or UAI ) are expected to utilize electronic media less frequently since these media are non good suited to uncertainness decrease as face-to-face and other rich channels ( Straub et al ; 1997 ) . Straub ‘ s survey showed that Power Distance that is other of import dimension of civilization can impact engineering credence. In societies in which directors and workers are separated by a big power distance, the levelling consequence of computer-based media is non seen or felt as a desirable characteristic. In a civilization with high power distance index, persons may demo respect to authorization by abstaining from utilizing media that do non let them face-to-face contact ( or, at the really least, entree to a richer set of cues than simple textual messaging ) . Therefore, the scope of usage of engineerings such as E-mail and other electronic media should be restricted by such societal norms. Workers in civilizations in which comparatively smaller power distance occur will, consequently, be able to utilize such engineerings in more communications scenes.
Following cultural index that Straub believed has consequence on credence a new engineering is individualism/collectivism. Low individuality ( low IDV ) perchance affects a civilization against computer-based communications because these media mute the group consequence. Peoples in collectivized civilizations can non pick up cues about the societal state of affairs as readily from computer-based media and, hence, would be disposed, overall, toward media such as face-to-face across all communications undertakings. The last index that Straub ( 1997 ) explained its relation with engineering credence is Masculinity/femininity. High in Mas Index can be translated to the high relationship with interpersonal presence. Harmonizing to Straub it can be predicted that media non conveying the societal presence of the communicator, such as E-mail, would non be favoured in civilizations in which maleness is a strong cultural. By looking at the Straub ( 1997 ) survey consequences, it was cleared that TAM would be successful in explicating the U. S. and Swiss experience but non the Nipponese experience. This consequence may happen in malice of the rational utility found in the medium. In instance of Japan, cultural inclinations toward more uncertainness turning away, greater power distances between directors and workers, leftist sentiments, and maleness may restrict E-mail usage and disassociate utility from usage ( Straub, 1997 ) . Straub gave a particular account on cultural dimensions and their consequence on utilizing a engineering.
Degree of UAI
Degree of PDI
Degree of MAS
Degree of IND
Degree of usage of E-mail
Figure 2. 1: Hofstede Cultural Dimensions and Media Choice of E-mail ( Straub et al. , 1997 )
In malice of the fact that there are many researches which explore the TAM in different states, the deficiency of the research on researching the cultural dimensions as an of import factor related to the credence a engineering is obvious. Therefore, the spread of survey can be explained as below:
Problem statement ( literature spread ) :
Harmonizing to the old treatment, although there is quickly increasing in cyberspace banking incursion but still there is some insecure feeling towards it. That means there are factors that can impact credence and adaptation of a engineering, beside bing factors such as utility, easiness of usage, subjective norm and etc.
While indispensable research has been directed toward understanding the acceptance and diffusion of IT ( Prescott and Conger, 1995 ) , there have been a few researches which were conducted to research the effects of civilization in the credence and scattering of new information engineerings ( Raman and Wei, 1992 ) . Research on the impact of corporate civilization on IT credence provides a utile point of view ( Cooper, 1994 ; Kydd and Jones, 1989 ) but cultural or national civilization research doubtless has a particular character.
The job to be investigated is that there is no adequate research that works on the consequence of national civilization on credence a engineering. Therefore, this survey examines the function of civilization on engineering credence theoretical account ( TAM ) adaptation and attempts to give an in depth position of Hofstede Cultural Dimensions towards credence of a engineering ( Power distance index, Individualism/collectivism, Uncertainty turning away ) . It is hoped that decisions can be drawn and opened a window for directors and all who want to convey universe of engineering to their life and work.
Based on the literature portion the model of survey is drawn in the following portion.
Research model, hypothesis, informations aggregation attack, and the information analysis methods is explained this chapter.
In intent to happen the cultural dimensions function in engineering credence, this paper will follow the Davis ( 1980 ) , Pavlou & A ; Chai ( 2002 ) , and Straub et Al. ( 1997 ) Cultural model, account of relation between TAM and Hofstede cultural dimensions will utilize McCoy, Everard and Jones ( 2005 ) research. The alone manner of this survey is to research differences and similarities in behaviors toward TAM in different degrees.
Proposed model is as below:
Behavioral Intention to Use Internet banking
Perceived Ease of Use
Perceived Behavioral Control
Figure 1. 1: model
Before developing the hypothesis, in order to accomplish the intent of this survey, a tabular array is designed based on the Hofstede scored for different states. In order to plan this tabular array, the undermentioned points must be considered:
First, design was draw harmonizing to states PDI, IND/CLV and UAI. countries were divided harmonizing to their mark in above three dimensions.
For power Distance Index, states were categorized from Low to Moderate, and Moderate to High. In order to happen states dimension in IDV/CLV once more two graduated tables, one Low to chair and back, chair to High were defined.
UAI for engineerings such as Internet Banking and Mobile Banking is an of import dimension, because these type of engineering that related to the security, privateness and personal information, ever carry high degree of UAI between people ( Pavlou and Chai, 2002 ) . Because of nature of these engineering and state of affairs that people can non interact straight with the bank staff, was defined as an uncertainness degree. Therefore it is really of import that states in these dimensions were scored carefully. This survey used three different graduated tables in order to split states harmonizing their UAI tonss. States divided to moo, chair and high degree individually from
each other, revise the two other indexes that had two degrees. In this measure once more states were arranged harmonizing to their three dimensions while each state found its topographic point in the tabular array that show its PDI degree, IND/CLV degree and UAI degree.
After agreement states harmonizing to the above way, a tabular array was designed with 12 cells. The tabular array shows states with similarities in dimensions in each cell. That means cells of this tabular array show states with similar cultural dimension in each cell. ( Table 2. 3 )
Cell 4: Arab World/Bangladesh/ Brazil/Colombia/East Africa/West Africa/Thailand/Venezuela/Ecuador.
Cell5: Argentina/Costarica/Greece/Israel/Japan/Malta/Spain/South Korea.
Cell6: Chile/Guatemala/Mexico/Panama/Peru/Portugal/ Romania/Russia/Surmania/Turkey/Uruguay/ Bulgaria/Elsalvador.
Cell7: Canada/Denmark/Ireland/New Zealand/Norway/South. AF/Sweden/US/UK/
Cell 10: Italy
Cell 11: Hungry
Cell 12: Belgium/France
Table 3. 1
In order to explicate the above tabular array, Malaysia selected as a sample. Based on the Hofstede tonss and above definition, Malaysia is considered as a state with high mark in power distance index, low in IND index and low in UAI index. Iran is considered a state with moderate degree in UAI, low degree in PDI, and low in IND.
By planing the above tabular array it is clip to open the hypothesis of this survey
Harmonizing to the figure 2. 1, perceived usefulness, easiness of usage, subjective norm and sensed behavioral control and behavioral purpose to utilize cyberspace banking are this survey ‘ s concepts. Here will be tried to happen cultural effects on Technology Acceptance Model, whether they lead to different behaviors on assorted degree of dimensions that will specify in this survey for each concept or non. Therefore chief hypothesis of this survey will be:
Cultural Dimensions have consequence on Technology Acceptance Model.
By expended of this Hypothesis, the consequences can be written as below:
The cultural dimensions in different degrees of PDI ( low and high ) , IND ( low and high ) , and UAI ( low, moderate and high ) can take to different behaviors toward usefulness concept in TAM.
The cultural dimensions in different degrees of PDI ( low and high ) , IND ( low and high ) , and UAI ( low, moderate and high ) can take to different behaviors toward easiness of usage concept in TAM.
The cultural dimensions in different degrees of PDI ( low and high ) , IND ( low and high ) , and UAI ( low, moderate and high ) can take to different behaviors, besides interact of these dimensions can take to different behaviors in Subjective Norm concept in TAM.
The cultural dimensions in different degrees of PDI ( low and high ) , IND ( low and high ) , and UAI ( low, moderate and high ) can take to different behaviours, in Perceived Behavior Control concept in TAM
The cultural dimensions in different degrees of PDI ( low and high ) , IND ( low and high ) , and UAI ( low, moderate and high ) can take to different behaviors, in Behaviour Intention to used Internet Banking concept.
Data aggregation attack:
In order to derive the best consequences, choosing the right samples is the of import undertaking. In this survey, the manner of roll uping sample is chance when it is default that all samples must be a user of Internet banking in the Malayan substructure ; besides, it is a simple random sampling because all samples in the population have the equal opportunity in order to be selected.
Beginning of informations
A beginning is primary if the information aggregator is the one utilizing the information analysis. A beginning is secondary if one organisation or person has compiled the informations to be used by another organisation or person.
In this survey, primary beginnings of informations which is distributed questionnaires are used to roll up. The instrument or step used is a structured questionnaire based on the literature reappraisal on the relevant subjects in order to roll up appropriate informations for this quantitative research.
Base on the chief purpose of this survey to pull people harmonizing to their cultural value so happening cultural consequence on TAM, model and tabular array, this paper needs different samples from different states that stay in Malaysia. Gathering information for this research paper included different phase and degree. Four university pupils ( UM, UTM, MMU ) will be as topographic points for garnering samples ; besides, the embassies of different states in Malaysia are the best topographic points for roll uping these informations from the more 20 states. Furthermore, the societal webs such as Facebook community in Malaysia are another beginning for grip sampling for this survey.
Roscoe ( 1975 ) proposes that the appropriate sample size for most research to be greater than 30 and less than 500. Needed samples for this research are at least 180 elements, and it is 15 for each cells.
3. 7 Data Analysis Method
Statistical Program for Social Science ( SPSS ) is used to analyse in this quantitative survey. The information was analyzed by Design of Experiment method ( DOE ) , for dependability trial, the cronbach ‘ s Alpha is used to guarantee the steps are free from mistake and bring forth consistent consequences.
Factor Analysis was used in order to cogency trial of each concepts.
In order to analyze and happen consequences, General Linear Model, and 3way Analysis of Variances was used in this survey.
Significance of the Study
Globalization and the omnipresent nature of the Internet facilitate cyberspace banking activities across states. In today globalisation universe, popularity of transnational corporations, and the motion toward technological revolutions, the value of more cross-cultural research is needed, as houses grow their operations in the international sphere, there is a demand to work the power of IT to pass on among these widespread locations and to organize activities both within and across states. Hence, it is of import for the directors of these houses to larn, every bit much as they can, about the cross-cultural acceptance and usage of IT. This survey can assist directors in international corporations to expect their employee ‘ s behaviours toward a new engineering and choose right behaviour toward their employees from different cultural background. This research can demo a manner to adaption a engineering between transnational companies, measure by measure, without coercing people to utilize a new engineering. By following right ways to adaptation of engineering, people will acceptance a engineering as a facilitate instrument, so this lead to forestall the failure of IT adaptation in a multicultural company.
Corporations would profit by acknowledging the consequence that cultures has on engineering credence and by implementing appropriate and perchance different engineerings at their assorted worldwide installations. This survey identifies several different consideration factors that come into drama when 1 is confronted with new engineering. By utilizing the statement of this survey, directors of corporate can do more informed determinations on engineering ascents and new engineering executions based on the civilization their corporate within.
Culture and concern ties to each other these yearss, as an corporation is traveling to come in a new states, foremost and of import point is happening the civilization of that states in both position of concern civilization and people civilization as user of their merchandise and service. If people beliefs reject the usage of a engineering, it can be consequence of non paying adequate attending to people civilization, imposts and beliefs.
This research can be used in multi-cultural states, where different people with different civilizations live beside each others, this can take to do some jobs, this research gives a broad scope of cultural divisions that can helpful for managing jobs.
Although the TAM is the most of import and popular method to analyze people behavior toward IT and IS, there are rare surveies which look at the TAM through a cultural position. This survey will supply a wider position toward TAM ; besides civilization as of import factors will be explored.
As a decision this alone survey can be a guide line for directors of transnational companies in order to manage their employees from different civilizations with dissimilar background ; besides, the sole consequences can be used for future research in order to detect the function of civilization in accepting or rejecting a new engineering.