William shakespeares presenting the visual problems english literature essay

According to knight s king Claudius the villain of the play is not actually the villain. He sees him as a good man and a kind king who is tangled in a problem of killing his brother the old Hamlet but it can be ignored because nobody knows about his secret except Hamlet, if he had been in Wittenberg none of these would happen. Claudius is innocent and cannot be considered as guilty because as a king whatever he have done later was for his own safety and what he have done earlier cannot be undone. To knight Hamlet is the real reason for all the disaster in the state beside the crime which was done by Claudius, Hamlet is more cruel and insensitive. In Hamlet’s fifth soliloquy when Claudius was praying Hamlet was anxious to take revenge and was waiting for him outside his brutal desires were clear on his face and when he was waiting for a perfect moment to kill him he suddenly goes to his mother’s room torture her by his bitter words. ‘‘ The question of the relative morality of Hamlet and Claudius reflects the ultimate problem of the play” (Knight, G. W (1930 quoted in Jump, J (1969): 41) how could a murderer can be innocent and not guilty and he does not deserve to be the king. Hamlet was only trying to do his duty as a son to take revenge of his father’s murder. The question of who was right or wrong was the real cause of Hamlet or the downfall of the whole play is described clearly from the start that Claudius was the one responsible for all these problems to kill the king, having hasty marriage with queen or to kill Hamlet if he had been killed earlier than fewer people would have killed. Hamlet’s personality reflects his Inability to take decision because of his morals and beliefs that stops him to do anything wrong ” If he hesitate to kill his uncle, it is not from horror of blood or from our modern scruples” (Taine, H. A. (1863-4) quoted in Jump , J(1969): 34)Hamlet’s will not to kill Claudius till the seventh soliloquy, is not because he does not want to kill any one and want to show his sensitive side it is because he has done things that cannot be included in the soft side because Hamlet had become the reasons of many people deaths without any hesitation or having regret feelings. Hamlet does not kill Claudius because he was praying and then without knowing who was behind the curtains he stabs Polonius . He only thinks in his soliloquies and does not react but at some points he suddenly react without thinking. Hamlet should confirm that whether the person behind the curtains is his enemy or not and should be able to see his weak points against his enemy. In my opinion I do agree with Taine that Hamlet as a prince should be courageous rather being coward to take revenge for his father’s murder. Besides as a man of words in his soliloquies, he should also be a person who is able to take decisions at right time not suddenly without knowing anything confirm who is the person he is about to kill. Hamlet should learn from his mistakes to improve weak points in his personality.” Deceit is a major cause of the downfall of Hamlet which is demonstrated in three instances in the play . First Polonius spies on Hamlet to know what Hamlet’s plans are while he is talking privately with his mother Gertrude. Secondly Claudius sends Hamlet away to England. finally, Laertes and Claudius scheme to kill Hamlet” (123helpme. com : A)Hamlet’s downfall is related with betrayal by many people such Polonius when he tries to listen the talk between Hamlet and his mother, Polonius in order to please the king became spy but unfortunately Hamlet kills him by mistake which Claudius use to send Hamlet to England and by sending Rosencrantz and Guild stern as a spy to find whether he is mad or not and tells them to convey his message to king of England to kill Hamlet. Hamlet as a prince was very much liked by people of his kingdom so if he had revealed Claudius secret to them they might believe him while Claudius after knowing that Hamlet knows his secret he try to kill him. If on the first place Polonius was not spying on Hamlet all this won’t happened and it won’t have given Claudius a chance to send Hamlet away which make Hamlet kill his friends without hesitation and feeling not guilty because he knows that they were betraying him but earlier we can see that Hamlet was feeling hesitated and was not able to kill Claudius. All these situations had made Hamlet so hard hearted that he does not have any regret for what he had done. Third reason can be the plotting done by Laertes and Claudius to kill Hamlet by poisoning the sword and think that there plan will work it does work Hamlet dies and reach his downfall but they to die with him. Hamlet being betrayed by his close family members and friends made him absent mind unable to take decisions . If Hamlet have killed Claudius in the beginning when he was aware of his guilt Polonius won’t be dead neither his friends. Hamlet’s delaying have put him close his downfall and his death. Hamlet prince of Denmark was surrounded by the closest people who were betraying him either they were his friends or his love Ophelia who leaves him for sake of her father even his own mother marries with his enemy who had killed his father and now trying to kill him too with these all situations Hamlet’s downfall was predetermined. Hamlet’s mother queen Gertrude was a major character which causes Hamlet’s downfall, her marrying again so quickly after two months from her husband’s death made her suspicious and disgusting that after knowing that Claudius have killed old Hamlet she still want to be with him.” A bloody deed almost as bad, good mother, as kill a king, and marry his brother III; iv; 29-30″ (123helpme. com: B) secondly Rosencrantz and Guildenstern deceiving Hamlet had also crushed Hamlet that they were spying on him from the order of Claudius to know whether Hamlet was mad or not . If his friends have helped him he won’t have felt lonely. Lastly Ophelia’s rudeness and breaking their relationship with Hamlet had also break his heart. Ophelia showing loyalty only to her father and not to Hamlet was wrong and after Hamlet telling her everything she deceives him for her family. From the rejection which Hamlet had got from his friends, mother and his love Ophelia had only give Hamlet pain and make him realize that he was left alone in the world which make him feel to die and wish for everyone else to die because of them he had to go through all these problems which is very much visible in his fourth soliloquy. After knowing the truth they all betrayed him and they are the reasons behind Hamlet’s tragic life and his downfall. If they were on Hamlet’s side it would have given him courage to fight against his father’s murderer.” Elizabethans thought murder unethical and private revenge sinful” (Gardner, H (1959) quoted in Jump , J(1969) : 138) Shakespeare portraying Hamlet as a person who delays his decisions can be the reason that the audience won’t accept the hero’s revenge of murdering the king because it was prohibited against their traditions. The scene of ghost is not clear yet that whether the ghost is real or not and on the other hand making charge on Hamlet that the fake play by Hamlet had no purpose and he was only delaying his purpose is hardly to accept for us as” Dover Wilson made available to us strengthens our conception of Hamlet as a man of intellectual integrity and moral sensibility”(Gardner, H.(1959) quoted in Jump , J(1969): 139) In a tragedy having bad circumstances is not necessary and that it had been made by the bad person of the story and finally in the end , the story is solved that will complete the hero’s mission. The hero thinks that it was his perfect plotting and decision that it had end but it is all provided by the villain of the story whom had made all these troubles . To take revenge is a sin so it is hard for Hamlet and as well for the audiences to understand that what should Hamlet actually do to take revenge and get satisfied or it can be seen as a barbaric act done by Hamlet. ” Do we really want to see Hamlet stab a defenceless person, kneeling man? This ” opportunity is no opportunity at all” (Gardner, H. (1959) quoted in Jump (1969): 145) Hamlet not killing Claudius in his fifth soliloquy while he was praying and delayed his purpose for right time was wasted. when Claudius know that Hamlet knows that he had killed his father he want to kill Hamlet also and Hamlet have the same desire . Hamlet’s harsh side is also visible when he kills his friends who were betraying him spying on him . Hamlet killed Polonius and became the reason of his love Ophelia’s death. Hamlet was depressed that he attempt to suicide because of his coward nature or because of the situations which made him do such things which is describe in his first soliloquy ” opens with lament that almighty has fixed his canon, against self-slaughter” (Gardner, H. (1959) quoted in Jump, J (1969): 148) ” for how can man secure justice except by committing injustice, and how can he act without outraging the very conscience which demands that he should act?” (Gardner, H. (1959) quoted in Jump, J (1969): 148)Hamlet delaying his purpose was because he was an honest man with moral values so he find difficult to kill anyone. In a way Hamlet soliloquies were presenting Elizabethan’s prince who was confused in his decisions but for the sake of truth he should have to break the rules in order to prove his love for his father and for his kingdom rather being a coward prince. Hamlet’s story is full of elements of mystery and suspense which is throughout the end. ” T. S Eliot phrases Hamlet as one of the greatest artistic triumph; whether, if it is a triumph, it belongs to the highest order of tragedy” (Mack, M (1952) quoted in Jump, J (1969): 87) Hamlet’s character disclose many secrets of other characters appearances and realities. The characters which were very close to him such like his uncle wanted him to be dead and had killed his father too but Hamlet was also not sure whether his mother was involved in this whole matter or not and why she committed adultery marriage. Another reason was his second soliloquy when Hamlet was still not sure that the ghost is real or it is the shape of Satan has confused him. Hamlet’s attitude towards Ophelia whom he loves has also turn different. He compares her with his mother’s adultery is wrong. Ophelia was beautiful and innocent girl whom obeys her father and brother orders but after their relation broke Hamlet compare her with nun which means nun and brothel and indirectly insults her. In his third soliloquy when Hamlet plays the fake madness and organizes a play within a play to find out the truth of King Claudius. After seeing the guilt in him he still do not kill him afterwards put the sword in the arras and kills Polonius instead of Claudius. ” William Butler Yeats once said, why should we Honour those who die on the field of battle? A man may show as reckless a courage in entering into the abyss himself?”(Mack, M. (1952) quoted in Jump, J (1969): 107) Hamlet was not sure that the ghost was really his father’s so how could he believe on the ghost’s words. It is not right to say that the play shows human weakness because it was Hamlets Cowardliness to take revenge; he had many chances to prove himself which he does not avail it. Hamlet compared to soldier is impossible because throughout the play Hamlet is shown as a coward prince but his delay have helped him to see the real faces of people around him but after the play scene he should have taken revenge which confirms Hamlet was so confused in his decisions. The character of Hamlet is described in two ways , first as a person of words, honest, sensitive and on the other hand a person who is cruel and had killed many persons and had become reasons of many people death. His cruel side can be the reason of his delay which have caused by his confused nature. If Hamlet have taken the decision to kill his uncle after listening to the ghost he would have finished the theme of suspense for the audience or may be it can related to his mental weakness of not taking action and only thinks . He is unable to decide whether he should take action or not at the right time. Hamlet’s biggest flaw can be his nature of over thinking. He never acts what he thinks and delayed his aim to take revenge of his father’s death. He have many chances to kill Claudius especially in his fifth soliloquy where he has the perfect time to kill Claudius while he was praying but Hamlet does not kill him because he does not want him to go in heaven. ” According to Goethe’s interpretation of Hamlet, he is lovely, pure and moral nature, without the strength of nerve which forms a hero.”(David . 2012) ” Schleger sees Hamlet having no firm belief either in himself or in anything else, in the resolutions which he so often embraces and always leaves unexecuted, his weakness is to apparent”(David2012)when Hamlet kills Polonius his son immediately wants to kill Hamlet but Hamlet only thinks himself as coward and planned a fake play to see the king’s action and after seeing Claudius reaction Hamlet does not do anything against him . Hamlet’s believe in the ghost as his father is the reason of his confusion and delay. He was sad having lost his father and his mother’s hasty marriage with his uncle so he tries to suicide which shows he was coward. Hamlet would have killed his uncle can end the suspense of the play is not right because it only puts him in the position of a coward prince who only thinks and unable to take revenge of his father’s murder . Hamlets mental weakness and indecisive nature can be of the incidents around him like his father’s death and mother instant marriage to his uncle after two months from his father’s death.” A due balance between our attention to the objects of our senses, and our meditation on the workings of our minds an equilibrium between the real and imagery worlds in Hamlet this balance is disturbed: his thoughts and the images are his fancy , are far more vivid than his actual perception”(Coleridge, S. T(. 1818) quoted in Jump, J(1969) : 30) Hamlet was not afraid of his death and was showing his bravery but the problem arises from his indecisive nature which had made the cause of his delay and his morals and beliefs which stops him to kill king Claudius because Hamlet was man of letters not action . Hamlet’s tragedy is very much contrast with Macbeth can more clearly present Hamlet’s personality because Hamlet performs his actions in extremely slow decision and on the other hand Macbeth does not think very much and take action in a hurry. Hamlet was not at all brave and he was very afraid to die he only thinks that to do this and that in his soliloquies but when the time comes to take revenge he was always delaying it. Hamlet should react like Macbeth in his situation without thinking so deeply and giving his enemy many chances against him. Soliloquies being used in these two different dramas and presented two different characters that give different result in end. Macbeth seen in soliloquies but he act fast and Hamlet only thinks but don’t react. From the beginning of the play Hamlet the reality is unknown to everyone that what has happened to old Hamlet the king who died by natural cause or was being murdered . Claudius guilt was very much clear to Hamlet so he want to kill him which he did not try till the end of his seventh soliloquy . Hamlet’s soliloquies are very much evident of all these situations and are very important part of him. Hamlet have many opportunities to take revenge when he was not in the dilemma of thinking and Claudius was praying he can kill him ” Hamlet seems to have a fair chance to put an end to his own self-anger at delaying; and then? When he thinks twice, it seems to prove no chance at all” (Holloway, J (. 1961) quoted in Jump, J (1969): 163-164) Hamlet’s soliloquies do not help him but only gives the impression of depressed and a tense person who is unable to take action. Hamlet’s condition had become worst because of these seven soliloquies and as a prince of Denmark his life is stressful from the duties that he had to perform as a son and for the kingdom of Denmark. His seven soliloquies does show his delay because he had many chances to kill his enemy and his delay is not acceptable no matter what were the reasons behind it, as a prince he should have courage to stand for right and take his father’s revenge. Hamlet is an intelligent person who has perfect manners of prince. In his third soliloquy he pretend to be mad in order to find the truth and to make those people satisfied who were spying on him and were his close friends. So he convince them that he is mad by talking and doing silly things and making them fool by his sense of humour but in result the purpose to take revenge for which he mostly appreciate himself without performing any action shows his characters weakness. In his first soliloquy he made comment to justify himself by comparing himself with Greek hero Hercules is not right because Hercules was strong not coward like hamlet who cannot take revenge ” He is a hypocrite towards himself ; his far fetched scruples are often mere pretexts to cover his want of determination: thoughts , as he says on a different occasion, which have but one part wisdom, and ever three parts coward”(Schlegel, A . W. V.(1809-1811) quoted in Jump, J(1969): 26)Hamlet have shown his cruel side by many times like when he treats badly with Ophelia and saying bad words to her which he enjoyed it and does not grief over her death Hamlet is only concerned with his own problems and sorrows not with others. He is a clever prince indeed but a hypocrite who pretending to be brave but never take revenge . He was much coward than been a wise man and was mostly worried about his own problems.” In Shakespeare’s play Hamlet most of the speeches, when the character is alone on the stage are quite powerful and play a significant role in the piece” (zayit. 2012) Hamlet being in such bad condition when his father dies he somehow manage his feelings which was very hard for him to understand what to do. It shows Hamlet’s as a man who have strength to control his mind and heart but comparably Ophelia her love was unable to come out from the news of her father death which makes her senseless and she dies. Hamlet mother Gertrude can be considered as emotion less woman who get married again and have no sad feelings on her husband’s death. Hamlet first soliloquy reveals his condition when his father dies and his mother got married with his uncle.” As Hamlet says Gertrude’s tears were like Niobe’s. Her cry didn’t change anything. In the portrait of Gertrude reader can see womanhood and Hamlet’s definition of woman can be applied to some, but I think that it is a sin to call your own mother frail” (zayit . 2012 ) Ophelia’s betrayal or his madness all these situations make him thinks to attempt suicide. Hamlet’s third soliloquy ” to be or not to be” shows Hamlet condition as a confuse person who does not what should he do whether to react or not . He want to get rid from these all troubles and want to kill Claudius to but Hamlet has no one to support him he is alone in his fight even his friends have betrayed him. . Hamlet mother personality shows that she was not loyal with her husband because after knowing the truth of Claudius she still does not leave him until she dies . Hamlet was emotionally strong but not mentally. His third soliloquy shows that he is disturbed with all the conditions around him which make him delay his purpose. Hamlet personality, his actions shows the psychological problems that affect him and clearly present his madness or his pretentious madness. Shakespeare want to present that every person have problems and suffering which effect on his mind the term of psychology of person. ” According to Freud , psychoneurosis means a state of mind where the person is unduly, and often painfully, driven or thwarted by the unconscious part of his mind, that buried part that was once the infant’s mind and still lives on side by side with the adult mentality that has developed out of it and should have taken its place “(Jones , E,(1949 )quoted in Jump, J(1969): 52) One reason of Hamlet’s psychological problem can be his anger to see his mother married to someone else and now her love will be again distributed with another man or despite this reason there can be one more reasons that Hamlet been jealous but he is unaware of it or his mothers loved shared by his father and uncle . Hamlet’s love for his mother lead him to think insecure to share her with anyone even not with his own father . In his fourth soliloquy , Hamlet’s idea of suicide which he think to do but deny it and finally kills his uncle for revenge of his father’s murder. Again in his fifth soliloquy Hamlet have the perfect chance of killing his uncle while he was praying and at that time there were no particular reason in his mind but he only think to kill the king in his mind after seeing the guilt in Claudius eyes. ” Thus conscience does make coward of us all” (Jones, E. (1949) quoted in Jump J (1969): 62) Hamlet does not have any desires towards his mother. Hamlet does not resemble with Oedipus Rex because Oedipus got married with his mother without knowing it but Hamlet does not marry or neither have feelings of love for his mother. He was very much upset with his mother hasty marriage . Hamlet was mentally disturbed because he is man of words and find difficult to kill anyone . His inner psychological problems can be seen in his personality that stops him to take revenge and delayed until the end. Among Hamlet’s seven soliloquies the most famous and well known is his ” to be or not be” in Which Hamlet is disturbed when he sees Fortinbras in action that father was killed by old Hamlet in a battle and now he is attacking on Denmark to take revenge but Hamlet was confused whether to take revenge against the murderer of his father or live a miserable life to see the murderer free because he is unable to take any action which makes him attempt suicide. Hamlet can kill Claudius while he was praying but he think that it is not right to kill him at this time because if he kills him it will be forgiven for his all crimes ” To die, to sleep–/No more–and by a sleep to say we end (III, I, 68-71) Hamlet knows that what he wishes to do with his uncle is sinful and wrong but it is this train of thought that leaves him in a state of anxiety. This soliloquy portrays Hamlet as a sort of coward because he cannot act upon his own emotions and desires In order to escape his heartache, he cowardly thinks about killing himself. Nevertheless, Hamlet’s resolve makes a dramatic turn by the time he recites his soliloquy of Act IV, Scene iv ’’ (www. 123helpme. com: c) from all these situation have made Hamlet realize that after all what have happened he still haven’t take his revenge which shows him as a coward and finally in his last soliloquies he realizes that now it is time to take revenge for his father and his own self respect and being the prince of Denmark it is his duty to maintain justice and pride of the kingdom . This realization was only seen by the action taken by Fortinbras . From the beginning Hamlet was not sure about the truth he was only assuming in his mind that he will take action but in the end he manages to control his mind which was making him confused to take his revenge. Hamlet was confused and coward in nature that’s why he was always delaying his purpose . He can only talk in philosophical ways but he has never done his duty as a prince. If he is a prince he should act like a prince and also as a son he delayed to take revenge of his father which shows his indecisive nature.” On the journey through the path of life, there are encounters with many incidents and situations where we must act accordingly” (123helpme. com : D) Hamlet has to go through different situations like his mother’s marriage, his father’s ghost, he accidentally killed Polonius which puts him in the condition of his famous soliloquies . Hamlet talks in his mind that what should he do or not. Hamlet’s mother’s hasty marriage not long after his father death had crushed him from inside because firstly he received his father death news and then his mother’s marriage with his uncle which was not acceptable. Hamlet somehow copes up with this horrible news he was extremely mad but he was not showing openly which was hurting him inside. Hamlet’s encounter with the ghost of his father in his second soliloquy also put him in confusing state that how can he believes on the words of the ghost and after knowing that Claudius have killed his father which made him more angry and he wants to kill him but Hamlet’s weakness come between in his way he only thinks but never act what he thinks. Murder of his father was the main thing for Hamlet and many times we see Hamlet in a dilemma in which he thinks to take action or to remain silent. He had many chances of murdering Claudius but he give it away and in the end he takes his revenge which was killing him insight ” The elements of the apparition who claimed to be Hamlet’s father, the incest which took place in the royal family, and the murders, were all reflected on by the perplexed Hamlet. Some people in today’s society are able to relate with Hamlet since there are people who also keep to themselves, as well as think well before they act.”(123. helpme. com: E) I do agree that his father’s death, his mother illegal marriage made him mentally confused and being alone Hamlet have no option or any one reliable he can talk with. Every person have betrayed him so he cannot trust anyone in his battle against his enemy and as well as the battle which was occurring in him and it is also right to think before doing something but in Hamlets position after confirming many times he should have react and take his revenge not only for himself but all the entire kingdom not to be cursed if any illegitimate child will rule it. The purpose of my research is to explain that how Hamlet’s seven soliloquies have reveal his confused indecisive and coward nature. His inability to adjust with the facts and face the situations around him courageously as a prince he only think in his soliloquies. As a result his seven soliloquies have become the reasons of delaying his long awaiting revenge and have lead him to his downfall but this is not the end it will lead to something new. ANALYSISCHAPTER 1 REVENGERevenge is the theme in any tragic play like Hamlet the prince of Denmark which revolve around the theme of revenge throughout the whole play, especially his soliloquies explains the sequence that how revenge plays around Hamlet’s character. Though revenge is in the entire drama but mostly portrayed in his second, third, fifth, sixth and most important in the seventh soliloquy. In his second soliloquy Hamlet’s meeting with his father ghost from whom he get confirmed that his father was being killed by no one else but his own uncle Claudius and that is the most important fact when revenge becomes Hamlet’s aim but on the other side we are introduced with a ghost on who’s saying how one can believe and that is the crucial point on which Hamlet have to take decision whether believe on some ghost’s or not to. But in the Elizabethan age people do believe in these supernatural creatures and this factor was mostly used in Shakespearean plays. Hamlet believing on the ghost was right and it was his father’s so he was convinced but at the same time he was afraid that the ghost might be Satan who wants Hamlet to do a sin but for Hamlet at that time it was his responsibility as a son and prince to take revenge of his father’s murder. Revenge the most hideous and blood shedding word is the cause of many disasters of not only one person but many others around him and that is what happened with our prince Hamlet. He was a moral person and that’s why his conscience won’t let him kill anyone innocent which can be seen in his third soliloquy in which he is blaming himself for not taking revenge of his father’s murder from the criminal king Claudius but still murdering someone was not easy for him . The conscience theory that Hamlet use to catch the king conscience was success it was this conscience that have made him hesitate to kill the king at once and only left him in his soliloquy. Hamlet’s plan to take revenge from the king was not easy and he wants to confirm about the murderer, he got his perfect chance after his well executed plan which shows that he was an intelligent man and he can handle the problematic situations calmly but as revenge does not result in calmness or pleasant endings. Hamlet cannot be firm on this matter it was about justice truth and betterment of the whole country. ” According to the ” conscience theory” represented by Ulrich, Hamlet was prevented from taking revenge by his conscience or his higher self . He was not inwardly convinced that he was morally justified to avenge the murder of his father” (Sharma, M. K. 2010 : 113)Hamlet’s decision not to take revenge is clear in his fifth and sixth soliloquy in which he can kill Claudius while he was praying and there were no one to see him but again he goes in his soliloquy and thinks that he will be forgiven for his crime but how a person who have done a crime can be forgiven, here Hamlet shows that he is a coward person who can’t take revenge but only assume to be heroic. In the beginning he was right to confirm about the whole scenario and then come to his business of revenge but now revenge and murder was very much clear to him and to us as well. He was not wrong to kill him because it was what king Claudius deserves. Similarly in his sixth soliloquy he talk strictly with his mother whom was also suspicious in the eyes of Hamlet because of her adulterous marriage she was equally guilty as Claudius but because of his generous heart he can’t hurt her . We do feel sorry for his condition because no one can hurt their parents and so he can’t also but again the issue of royalty and duty of a prince son he should be a person who is able to fulfil his words. In the melancholy theory Bradley remarks ” now, in Hamlet’s moral sensibility there undoubtedly lay a danger Any great shock that life might inflict on it would be left with extreme intensity such a shock might even produce tragic results”( Sharma, M. K. 2010 : 115)His seventh soliloquy which is the last powerful soliloquy in which finally revenge does happened. The seventh soliloquy is the only one in which Hamlet’s show’s courage finally after being inspired by from the Fortinbras who was taking revenge of his father’s death . Hamlet and the Fortinbras prince can be compared. As the prince of Fortinbras without thinking or delaying fights to take revenge and Hamlet on the other side is so coward as he says by himself that he has one part of courage and three part of coward proofs that he can never take revenge because he never got the will in him and take action as a prince should do. Hamlet was young and took a lot of time to take his revenge by only thinking and not reacting and definitely it was because of his inner weakness or his weak moral conscience from which he was unable to display his courage and comfort himself with the idea that he was doing the right thing. CHAPTER 2 DECEPTIONThat one may smile, and smile, and be a villain! At least I’m sure it may be so in Denmark. So, uncle, there you are. ( Shakespeare, W. , Act: 1, Sce: 5, 114-116)The above quotation of Hamlet explains that he himself know about his inability to do anything but still was not ashamed for the delay that occur just because of his fear to fight with his number one enemy. After been sure that he is in the right path of planning his revenge and now it was time to execute his plan he only thinks rather to attack on his enemy. More relative than this: the play’s the thingWherein I’ll catch the conscience of the king. (Shakespeare, W. , Act: 2 sce: 2, 365-366)From the start of the drama Hamlet was surrounded by numbers of people who deceit him which is clearly seen in his first soliloquy where he was mourning on his father’s death and find himself alone even in the presence of his mother and uncle and want to die. Hamlet seeing his mother married to his uncle disgust him and that was the first factor from which he feels deceived. Mother’s are the one in their presence a child can feel comfort and protected but if she betrays her own children there is no one whom they can trust similarly this happened with Hamlet. He was not only betrayed by his mother but also by his own uncle the new king . Hamlet’s meeting with his father’s ghost confirm about his murder and how one brother deceit the other but what stroke Hamlet was that his mother is very much involve with the king and it was apparently right to notice and that is what make her suspicious in his eyes. Soft now to my motherO heart, lose not thy nature; let not ever ( Shakespeare, W. , A ct: 3, sce: 2, 255-256)The soul of Nero enters this firm bosom: Let me be cruel, not unnatural: I will speak daggers to her, but use none; My tongue and soul in this be hypocrites (Shakespeare, W. , A ct: 3, sce: 2, 257-260)Hamlet was mainly deceived by the evil king Claudius who killed old Hamlet and the reason that might hurt him the most that he was his real uncle but when duty calls one have to be practical and for Hamlet it was his duty as a son and for the justice to be kept alive in Denmark . If Hamlet does not take revenge from Claudius he would be traitor not only to his father but also with the people of Elsinore who could be cursed because of him which was based on one of the blind faith of Elizabethans that the king represent’s god and if they are killed by mischief the whole country have to face the consequences. Hamlet in his third soliloquy planned a play within a play to catch the king. Now Hamlet was playing the deceiving part in which he was tricking the king to catch the fear on his face in which he get success and see guilt on Claudius . Hamlet deceiving was for good and was only to confirm Claudius hideous crime which he was hiding from everyone . Till now Hamlet was right to be patient and to enquire the whole situation and then react but after conforming the truth he should have react now why to wait when everything was clear as mirror even in his fifth soliloquy after the play when he has perfect chance to stab the king he goes in deep thinking not to kill Claudius because he was in his chamber confessing his crime that will lead him to heaven That is something not acceptable and here Hamlet is to blame for his lazy and in deceive nature which portrays that he had his chances to take revenge from the people who have deceived him. Gertrude illegal marriage was the big issue that reveal her mysterious personality and from this reason Hamlet question his mother in his sixth soliloquy but do not harm her because although she marry’s his uncle but still she is his mother and he loves her. Hamlet’s situation is very much linked with the story of King Lear who was father of three daughter’s Cordelia, Regan and Goneril. . Lear mistrust cordelia and was betrayed by his two daughter’s just like Hamlet was betrayed by his own people. CHAPTER 3 PROCRASTINATIONHamlet’s personality shows procrastination in his most soliloquies or we can say in every soliloquy except the last until this event he was not sure he has his perfect plan to execute.” Although Hamlet accepts the ghost’s word while he is with him, seeds of doubt about the ghost’s authenticity have been sown from the beginning of the play and continue to torment Hamlet up until the end of the play” Heilman.(123helpme. com: F)His second soliloquy was the first time when Hamlet was aware of his father and the late king murder and from this moment delay was seen in Hamlet‘ s nature. At several places Hamlet shows the signs of his habit to delay the revenge after knowing the truth he still does not react. Making many excuses like not to believe on ghost it can be devil though he may be right because a ghost can be an allusion but in reality he was only delaying his purpose. Goethe in Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship proposed that Shakespeare means, in Hamlet, to ” represent the effects of a great action laid upon a soul unfit for the performance of it” (123helpme. com: G)” For the two months since Hamlet has seen the ghost, Hamlet has been unable to commit his vowed revenge; unable to explain to himself either his long delay or his depression and insanity. Maybe he’s scared of taking revenge on Claudius; he may think by taking revenge he endangers his own soul. No matter how right a man might think his motives are, if Claudius is innocent; the act of revenge would inevitably make Hamlet as evil as the accused in the eyes of God” Becker (123helpme. com: H)In Elizabethan times, a ghost was generally believed to be a devil that had assumed the form of a dead person. These ghosts wanted to put into danger the souls of those nearest themselves through lies and other questionable behaviour. (123helpme. com: I)A positive point that favour’s Hamlet is that the ghost are not considered as good soul or the soul of the dead person who are near to them are good . This is the factor on which Hamlet also think in his soliloquy that it might be devil tricking him by coming in his father’s appearance.” If Hamlet were to carry out what the Ghost told him and carried out immediate revenge, how would Hamlet have been able to convince the people who he justifiably executed an act of revenge. Another reason Hamlet procrastinates is that his psychological feelings confuse his ability to ” confront his destiny.” Hamlet’s dilemma has little to do with what decisions he should take, but rather whether he will be able to make any decisions at all. Perhaps due to his excessive melancholy Hamlet became morally weakened and therefore lost his desire for revenge. As Hamlet states ” my weakness and my melancholy”(II. ii. 630) and his ” wild and whirling words”(I. v. 133) his mood shifts from deep depression to elation, which might explain his indecisiveness throughout the play” (Directessay. com)Hamlet was the only one who knew about the truth and he can’t trust anyone because the people whom he was so closed and dear to him were the cause of his despair and isolation that have effect on his mind and made him curious about the circumstances around him. Hamlet was sentimentally weak and that have destroy him internally which make him tangled in taking his revenge so he kept delaying which is visible throughout the drama. In his third soliloquy his delaying nature remain constant rather to react he is still lamenting on his unsucceed achievements. Hamlet’s way only to think a lot put him in the state of soliloquy which is not helping him in the situation. A . C. Bradley proposed another reason for the delay in his Shakespearean Tragedy Bradley argued that? Hamlet’s delay is the result of a melancholic state of mind, brought on by the death of his father and the hasty remarriage of his mother (123helpme. com: J)The mousetrap was another clue for Hamlet in confirming about his father’s death and by delaying his purpose of revenge he gives time to his enemy to think another trick and planned plot against him and after the play was done he still does not react and be happy in his imaginary world that he would now kill the king.” Hamlet decides to test Claudius’ guilt and the authenticity of the ghost; he will stage a performance of a play, which will reproduce Claudius’ crime and observe his reaction to it” Durband.(123helpme. com: K)To be, or not to be: that is the question. Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to sufferThe slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them. To die; to sleep; (Shakespeare, W., Act: 3, scene: 1, 63-67)IT is the most famous soliloquy of all seven soliloquies of Hamlet which is well known universally and that demonstrates Hamlet’s indecisive nature in which he think he should live and fight or suicide. The sentimental theory is represented by Goethe. According to this view, Hamlet has a lovely, pure and most moral and sensitive temperament without the strength of nerve which forms a hero and so his soul sinks beneadath a burden. (Sharma, M. K. 2010: 113-114)Hamlet’s delaying his purpose clearly shows his inability to take decision on right time after knowing the reality he still lacks courage and thinks to die and only stops because he knows that it is prohibited in his religion and he does not want to go to hell. Here he is presenting his dual personality at one place he is showing great concerned and care about his father and on the other side he is showing his selfishness only to think about himself although it is his duty to take action and kill the culprit rather to leave him free and let him rule the kingdom. Yet Hamlet’s delaying extended to the next soliloquy where he find the king in his chamber accepting his crime in front of God he can kill him but he thinks in his mind that it will send him into heaven. Hamlet’s procrastination goes to a high level because if he was right than why he hesitate to avenge his father’s murder though Goethe’s theory declares Hamlet as a sensitive person and it was because he was internally sensitive. Morality is the next big challenge that Hamlet faces. Hamlet needs to morally justify the murder of the king to himself before he can go through with it, ” Hamlet was restrained by conscience or a moral scruple; he could not satisfy himself that it was right to avenge his father” Bradley. (123helpme. com: L)Hamlet waste his time diverting to his mother queen Gertrude to torture her by his words in his fifth soliloquy but this soliloquy shows his sensitive side that he has a soft heart and thinks a lot with his heart. Hamlet was never ready to attempt his crucial matter of murdering the king until he goes to his mother.” Hamlet’s sense of himself as a coward is derived from a crude, simplistic judgment turning on whether or not he has yet taken any action against the man who murdered his father. His self-condemnation takes several bizarre forms, including histrionic imaginings of a series of demeaning insults that he absorbs like a coward because he feels he has done nothing to take revenge on Claudius” Newell” ( Mabillard, A. 2000)With Newell statement proofs that Hamlet was a coward person who accepts his mistakes because deep down he know he was wrong and was not acting like he should be like a prince should react so his delay was mostly because of himself.” Many critics believe that Hamlet uses Claudius’s prayer as an excuse for further delay because his conscience will not allow him to commit premeditated murder. Others claim that it is not Hamlet’s altruism which saves Claudius in this scene, but his own paralyzing habit of ” thinking too precisely on the event” (4. 4. 41). However, the second argument is moot because the basis of his procrastination is his inability to commit premeditated murder” (Mabillard, A. 2000)Hamlet not killing the king was an excuse that shows Hamlet’s personality error that he has delay his revenge just because he was unable to kill anyone. He can only think and assume of murdering Claudius but in reality he was nothing and the point of not killing Claudius during prayers was to convince himself that it is not the right time to kill him so he won’t go to heaven. The moment Laertes heard of his father’s death he left for Denmark, rallied up some followers, and marched past the King’s guards to the Royal Court and demanded an answer. ” O thou vile King, give me my father,” Laertes bellowed at fight with his father’s murderer Hamlet but Hamlet on other side was still planning to kill Claudius (123helpme. com: M)With the above quotation the question raised in our mind that why prince Hamlet delay and why he was ready to fight with Laertes when he was at wrong because he was the murderer of Polonius but not ready to fight with Claudius.” The appearance of the ghost to Hamlet causes him much confusion. As Dodsworth states, ” Hamlet regards the Ghost as eminently ‘ questionable’, that is, ‘which invites question’ as Jenkins has it, but more pertinently ‘uncertain, doubtful’”(Dodsworth). Hamlet does not know whether or not to listen to the ghost. If it is indeed the ghost of Hamlet senior Hamlet is obligated to follow his orders, ” It is as he is flesh of his flesh that Hamlet is bound (by ‘nature’) to act on his father’s behalf” (Dodsworth). In conclusion, the appearance of the eminently is the beginning of Hamlet’s problems”( 123helpme. com: N)Many critics do agree with Hamlet believing on the ghost was right or the ghost was truly responsible for Hamlet’s delay but that is not true because Hamlet does not believe on the ghost on the whole because he was not sure whether to believe or not.” Bradley goes on to state; the second trait which is fully explained only by Hamlet’s melancholy is his own inability to understand why he delays. This emerges in a marked degree when an occasion like the player’s emotion or the sight of Fortinbras’ army stings Hamlet into shame at his inaction Bradley.”(123. helpme. com: O)Hamlet procrastination exceed till the sixth soliloquy but finally in his seventh soliloquy in which Hamlet compare himself with Fortinbras prince who does not delayed his purpose and his revenge none like Hamlet who was always denying the factors in front of him and by seeing the Fortinbras prince he got inspired and some shame that give him courage before the end and here his long awaiting revenge come to its final result which proof’s with this quote of Dodsworth:” Dodsworth states, the militaristic imagery in which the choice of existence is expressed gives an immediate expression of how violent, and how desperate, is the struggle within Hamlet’s own mind. The lines present a military situation in which final defeat is inevitable.”(123helpme. com: p)This quote shows that Hamlet’s idea of nobility is one in which the only way to become noble is to die in the process . Comparing Hamlet with Laertes demonstrates that even Laertes have the courage and dignity to fight for his father murder unlike Hamlet who is never sure to do anything. By different critics observation it confirms that Hamlet was internally and morally weak he do not have the will to take revenge of his father death. Though he was a good hearted person but still a coward hero who always talks to do heroic deeds but fails in attempting them. To some people he may be right and sensible to think first while doing anything but taking so much time is something not acceptable he should have done a little action . Hamlet’s delay was just because of himself that approves by this quotation:” The weakness of will theory is represented by Schlegel and Coleridge . according to this theory, Hamlet is the tragedy of reflection . if there is a problem before him he goes on thinking and brooding about it for a long time” ( Sharma, M. K. 2010: 114)CHAPTER 4 MADNESS” According to author Robert Youngson’s, The Madness of Prince Hamlet, Hamlet “…was suffering from a condition of known as Ganser syndrome…the voluntary production of psychotic symptoms” (Youngson 1) Youngson proposes that Hamlet’s sanity can be diagnosed as Ganser syndrome, a syndrome where an individual is marked insane because they voluntarily produce psychotic symptoms” (Mathison, M. 2010)If we see youngson theory of insanity we can analyse that Hamlet was acting mad because he want to know the truth and to know what conspiracies the king was planning which was true I also agree from this statement that Hamlet have the reasons to be mad or act as mad because of the circumstances around him and to find out the truth of his dear father’s murder which was at the moment claimed on his uncle Claudius.” In each play the protagonist is forced into confusion and ultimately a state of insanity. The role of women in each of the two plays is similar as well; they are objects upon which men vent their anger, as well as tools used to propel the protagonists into madness” (Digitaltermpapers. com)A perfect quote that elaborates Hamlet’s and Othello’s true reasons to be in this situation and to react like this. In the whole drama we can easily analysis that Hamlet was never sure what he was doing or what he should do. His mother was one who has put him in a condition of madness and Othello’s who got mad in jealously of not believing on his wife and kills her but both the hero’s got mad because of women. Hamlet madness was feigned he shows his insanity just to know the truth about his uncle. Hamlet madness has convince the king that he was mad but it was only his plan to catch the king reality similarly the king also know the truth of Hamlet and want to kill him but on the negative side Hamlet’s madness has cause the death of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern the question arises over here that if he can be so vengeful at this time why he have not kill the king yet. In his first soliloquy: O, that this too too solid flesh would melt, Thaw, and resolve itself into dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fix’d (Shakespeare, W. , Act: 1, sce: 2, 131-133)So excellent a king; that was, to this, Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my motherThat he might not beteem the winds of heavenVisit her face too roughly. (Shakespeare, W. , Act: 1, Sce: 2, 141-144)O God! A beast, that wants discourse of reason, Would have mourn’d longer—married with mine uncle, My father’s brother, but no more like my fatherThen I to Hercules; within a month, (Act: 1, sce: 2, 152-155)Hamlet madness can be real because of the situations that were occurring around him like knowing the sudden news of his father death and Gertrude marriage so soon with his uncle not long after his father’s death. These two major causes have put a big impact on his mind. Hamlet comparing his father with Greek myth character hibo was to show his father’s greatness and comparing himself with Hercules shows his insanity because at one point he is feeling lonely, desperate and even disgusted here he was thinking to suicide rather to act or to ask his mother about her betrayal and on the other side he is reacting like a mighty hero who was famous for his bravery . Hamlet’s twisted mind was always confused and does not know what to do. Hamlet being so possessive about his father’s death and mother’s adultery marriage divert his mind in dual matters and slowly moving to the steps of madness. In his second soliloquy Hamlet seeing his father’s ghost shocked him but it amazed the Elizabethan audience. The basic point that disturbed Hamlet was whether he should believe that ghost was real or not. Hamlet’s concern was that may be it is the satan tricking him and want him to commit a sin so he can go to hell or maybe he is losing his mind . Hamlet seeing the ghost can be assumed as real because at that time people do believe in ghost and other supernatural elements which can also be compared with Macbeth’s witches who give him prophecy about his future as Hamlet’s father’s ghost tells about his murder that how king Claudius his father’s brother kill him while he was asleep . Hamlet’s seeing the ghost can be his imagination and if we analyze his situation psychologically it seems he was going mad in love of his father and was unable to bear the pain of losing him.” Great wits are sure to madness near allied, and thin partitions do their bounds divide.” Though John Dryden’s quote was not made in regard to William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, it relates very well to the argument of whether or not Hamlet went insane. When a character such as Hamlet is under scrutiny, it can sometimes be difficult to determine what state he is in at particular moments in the play. Nonetheless, Hamlet merely pretends to be insane so that he can calculate his moves according to the situation at hand (123helpme. com: Q)Hamlet’s mind consistently thinking about his failures proves his mental nadir. His third soliloquy also give us signs of his mental confusedness, the ability to judge right or wrong which we can analyse in the play. The soliloquy in which Hamlet get success to catch the king conscience while pretending to be mad was a good idea but beside the plan now there were no reason left for him to delay his revenge but he does not do anything which was disappointment not at least expected from a prince but Hamlet cannot be totally blamed because at that time he has to go through many psychological problems and we are well aware that he was quiet young and still studying and when he has to face a lot of problems at same time lonely he may have lost his mind.” Joanna Montgomery Byles states that ” The concept of the superego, both individual and cultural, is important to our understanding of the dynamics of aggressive destruction in Shakespeare’s tragedies involving revenge. (Tragic Alternatives 1).” ” According to the psychoanalytic perspective on human development, the superego represents a person’s conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong; (” Saskatchewan Learning”)” therefore, superego may justify the reasons for Hamlet’s actions because both his father’s death, and mother’s marriage, have mentally affected him, not allowing Hamlet to know any better action to take” (katie22 (2012) I do very much agree with this concept that it is our own conscience that stops us to do anything that we might think is wrong and similarly when we are sure that we are doing the right thing we still have some confusions that we might be wrong so Hamlet goes in the same dilemma but after confirming the mousetrap play he should have reacted though he was disturbed by his mothers second marriage or his father’s death. Again his fourth soliloquy which is the most famous soliloquy of the whole drama which is to be or not to be also shows Hamlet’s insanity . A person who is unable to do anything or to react at right time clearly declare that the person’s mind is confuse rather to take revenge he thinks to suicide . we can easily compare Hamlet’s state of mind with Oedipus rex . Like Hamlet was unable to commit suicide because he was well aware with the fact that in Christianity suicide is forbidden and he was thinking dually that whether he should live a shameful life . His mind was disturbed but he have to deal with the reality and accepts his internal weakness similarly Oedipus rex after knowing his crime was also unable to kill himself but he had some courage to stab his eyes unlike Hamlet who was only thinking with a mind of not taking decisions.” Some critics attribute Hamlets inability to act to an Oedipus complex These proponents say that Hamlet, in his subconscious mind, has a desire to do exactly what his uncle has done; that is, get rid of the husband so that he can have Gertrude for himself If this is true, Hamlet cannot act because he is fighting against his subconscious; he knows he wants something that is entirely evil, and if he were to go through with it he would be no better than Claudius” (123helpme. com: p)Another perception of Hamlet’s sanity can be of Oedipal complex that he was somehow in love with his mother so that’s why he want to kill king Claudius but Oedipus does not know that he was marrying his own mother but Hamlet was well aware of his mother and does not show any sign through which we can say that he loves his mother in other way another reason that can prove that Hamlet do not have any love feelings for his mother Gertrude is that Hamlet had knowledge of religion so he has sense of what was wrong and that’s why he was also against his mother’s hasty marriage with his uncle which was prohibited in those days.” Hamlet delays in killing Claudius not only because he’s suffering from a Oedipal complex but also because he is far too sane or practical to commit an act of murder In other words, basic sanity keeps him from killing Claudius”(123helpme. com : R)Hamlet was a sensible and intelligent boy who was not that mad that he would have kill anyone as he was a scholar and knows that killing someone is a sin and it is also not easy to murder a person because it was not confirmed to him that the action’s he was planning to take might be wrong. As Sir Herbert Tree has recently said: ” But for humour he should go mad. Sanity is humour.” (Crawford, A. W. 2009)This Quote indicates that Hamlet was a cunning and humoured person he was well aware of what he was doing. Though he was acting mad but it does reflect that he is a genius who thinks a well prepared planned before coming to any decision. Hamlet’s madness can be compared with other Shakespearean tragedies such as king Lear’s madness who got mad by the betrayal from his two daughter’s whom he trust but mistrust his beloved daughter and after when he knew the truth he got mad . First he was mad in power and then in regret. And Macbeth got mad because of his aim to deceive the king and have him placed as a king but was not successive in his intentions. CONCLUSIONHamlet prince of Denmark as the title reflects itself that it is a story about a prince and as we know he was struggling with his problems. At several times it approves that Hamlet mind was so confused that he cannot take any decision. Hamlet does not show himself what a real prince should do in such a situation. Hamlet the tragic hero disappoints the readers and mostly in my opinion I do not see any heroic or prince quality in him because if he had taken his revenge in the beginning of the play the people who were close to him would be alive . He was confused and coward man and with his indecisive nature which he have portrayed at several times in his seven soliloquies that he always need so many evidences to confirm and yet he need someone to inspire him that show him a weak person. Whenever he decides to take any action he goes into the dilemma of thinking in his mind and change his plan of action. He had many chances to take his revenge but he was unable to take decision because he was trapped in dual answers which were occurring in his mind. It also clarified that Hamlet was not a man who can fight but only a scholar who thinks a lot but imply nothing. Hamlet should be a man of his tongue that what he commit he should fulfill it because as a born prince courage is inherited in his blood but he takes long time to understand and feel what is the true meaning of being a prince and for me that has become the reason of his downfall